Gen Chem 1/2 continued

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Gen Chem 1/2 continued
2010-06-14 23:23:00

General Chemistry Exam 1 set 2
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  1. Group 1A
    Alkali metals, not H. Soft, shiny metals able to be shaped. React violently with water. Have a 1+ charge when they become an ion.
  2. Group IIA
    Alkaline earth metals. Soft, shiny metals that react moderately with water. These have a 2+ charge when they become an ion.
  3. All B Groups
    Transition elements/metals- Cations
  4. Elements 58-71
    Lanthanides (metals)
  5. Elements 90-103
  6. Group VIIA
    Halogens. Very reactive nonmetals. Most are colored gases at room temp. When they become an ion they have a 1- charge.
  7. Group VIIIA
    Noble gases. These are inert.
  8. Atomic Mass
    Relative mass of an average atom of an element on the 12/6 C scale. Number under the elemental symbol on the periodic table. Not the same as mass number (A). Due to isotopes. Can be calculated from 1. The number of isotopes of the element. 2. Relative mass of each isotope 3. Percent abundance of each isotope
  9. Molar mass can specify quantity of material by
    1. Mass 2. Amount
  10. Avagadro's number
    6.022 times 10 the 23rd power
  11. Ionic bond
    Formed when oppositely charged ions are attracte dto one another. Caused by a transfer of electrons.
  12. Covalent bond
    Nonmetals, sharing of electrons forming a bond.
  13. Chemical formula
    Notation of elemental symbols and numerical subscripts that tells the elements and number of atoms of each element present. NaCl
  14. Molecular formula
    Actual number of atoms of each element in a compound
  15. Empirical formula
    Smallest whole number ratio of atoms present in a compound
  16. Atomic elements
    Exist in nature as single atoms as their base units
  17. Molecular elements
    Exist as molecules, 2 or more atoms of the same element bonded together
  18. Molecular compound
    Composed of two or more non-metals covalently bonded.
  19. 3 types of molecular compounds
    1. Diatomic 2. Triatomic 3. Polyatomic
  20. Ionic compound
    Composed of cations and anions bound together by ionic bonds with a basic formula unit
  21. Four ways to form ionic bonds
    • 1. metal (+)/ non-metal (-)
    • 2. Metal (+)/ polyatomic ion (-)
    • 3. Polyatomic ion (+)/nonmetal (-)
    • 4. Polyatomic ion (+)/ polyatmoic ion (-)
  22. Carbonate
  23. Hydroxide
  24. Nitrate
  25. Phosphate
  26. Ammonium
  27. Sulfate
  28. Alkali metals
    Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr
  29. Alkaline earth metals
    Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra
  30. To convert from g to mol you would
    divide by the molar mass
  31. To convert from mol to g you would
    multiply by the molar mass