A&P ch 8

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stef1208
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23622
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A&P ch 8
Updated:
2010-06-14 23:44:39
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anatomy physiology
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A&P ch 8
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  1. 2 classifications of joints
    structural and functional
  2. immovable joint
    synarthroses
  3. slightly movable joint
    amphiarthroses
  4. freely movable joint
    diarthroses
  5. Joint where articulating bones are separated by a fluid-containing joint cavity
    synovial
  6. occur between bones of the skull and use short connective tissue fibers to hold bones together
    suture
  7. fibrous tissue is ossified
    synotoses
  8. bones are connected by ligament (think: lucy - ligament)
    syndesmoses
  9. peg-in-socket fibrous joint (think: clomp around)
    gomphosis
  10. bar or plate of hyaline cartilage united the bones (like epiphyseal plate)
    synchondroses
  11. articular surfaces are covered with articular cartilage fused to an intervening pad or plate of fibrocartilage (playing music on an ipad)
    symphyses
  12. joint containing fluid
    synovial joint
  13. 5 features of synovial joint
    • 1. articular cartilage at end
    • 2. cavity is filled with fluid
    • 3. two-layered articular capsule encloses joint cavity
    • 4. fluid is viscous, slippery fluid
    • 5. reinforcing ligaments
  14. What type of arthritis is thought to be the result of an autoimmune disorder?
    rheumatoid arthritis
  15. Bags of lubricant that reduce friction at synovial joints.
    • Bursae
    • tendon sheaths
  16. Saclike extension of joint capsule between nearby sutures so they slide more easily past each other (think sac--italian for purse)
    bursa
  17. cylinders of connective tissue lined with synovial membrane and wrapped around tendon
    tendon sheath
  18. What determines the movements that occur at synovial joints? (They play a minimum role is stabilizing joint)
    shapes of articular surface
  19. These prevent unwanted or excessive movement at joint; help stabilize joint.
    Ligaments
  20. Keeps tendons crossing joints taut; most important factor stabilizing joints.
    Muscle tone
  21. pointing the toe is a _____ movement
    plantar flexion
  22. circulating your arms, making a cone shape is a _____ movement
    circumduction
  23. limb towards midline is a _________ movement
    adduction
  24. limb away from midline is a _________ movement
    abduction
  25. rotating arm so palm is anterior or superior
    supination
  26. rotating arm so the palm is posterior or inferior
    pronation
  27. twisting foot medially and laterally
    inversion, eversion
  28. moving mandible forward
    protraction
  29. moving mandible back to original position
    retraction
  30. lifting a body part
    elevation
  31. move an elevated body part downward
    depression
  32. movement of pinching thumb and finger together
    opposition
  33. flat surface allowing gliding and transitional movement
    plane
  34. cylindrical projection nesting in a trough-shaped structure; movement along single plane
    hinge (think door hinge is cylindrical)
  35. a rounded structure that protrudes into sleeve; uniaxial rotation of a bone (twists)
    pivot
  36. permits all angular movements; oval articular
    condyloid or ellipsoid
  37. type of joint that bears complementary concave and convex areas
    saddle (move freedom of movement than condyloid joints)
  38. spherical structure in cup-like socket (most freely moving)
    ball-and-socket
  39. 3 degrees of freedom
    multiaxial (shoulder)
  40. the three joints making up a knee joint
    • -femoropatellar (think: femur, patella)
    • -lateral & medial joints between femur condyles
    • -tibiofemoral joint (menisci of the tibia)
  41. Reinforced by muscle tendons
    knee capsule
  42. the most freely moving joint of the body (specific)
    shoulder (glenohumeral)
  43. ligaments that help reinforce shoulder
    • -coracohumeral ligament
    • -three glenohumeral ligaments
  44. The tendons that cross the shoulder joint and proved that most stabilizing effect
    • -tendon at head of bicep
    • -4 tendons at rotator cuff
  45. the hip (coxal) joint is a ____ type joint
    ball-and-socket
  46. The majority of the stability of the hip joint is due to the deep socket of the ______ and the ______.
    • -acetabulum
    • -ligaments
  47. Ligaments of elbow joint
    • -annular
    • -ulnar collateral
    • -radial collateral
  48. The most common joint injuries are _____ and ____.
    sprains & dislocations
  49. the inflammation of the bursa
    bursitis
  50. inflammation of the tendons; caused by overuse
    tendonitis
  51. breakdown of articular cartilage and thickening of bone tissue
    osteoarthritis
  52. the fixed point in the lever system
    fulcrum
  53. rotation when _____ overcomes _____
    effort; resistance
  54. Types of levers produce either increase in ______ or increase in _____.
    speed and force
  55. mechanical advantage equation
    MA = LE / LR

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