Anatomy chapter 2 the chemistry of life

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Anatomy chapter 2 the chemistry of life
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2013-09-22 07:07:36
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Chemistry
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  1. Biochemistry
    The study of living molecules that compose living organisms
  2. Element
    Simplest form of matter with unique chemical properties
  3. Atomic number
    Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
  4. What do electrons do to the atom?
    Determine the chemical properties of an atom
  5. Noble gas
    An atom with a full outer energy level is very stable
  6. Valence electrons
    Are in the outermost shell, they interact with other atoms. Determining chemical bonding properties of an atom.
  7. Isotopes
    Differ from one another only in the number of neutrons therefore in the atomic mass
  8. What happens to different isotopes of an element?
    Exhibit the same chemical behavior, they differ in physical behavior
  9. What do unstable isotopes give off?
    Radiation
  10. Radioisotopes
    Unstable isotopes that give off radiation, every element has at least one
  11. Radioactivity
    Radioisotopes decay to stage isotopes, releasing radiation
  12. Ions
    Charged particles with unequal #of protons & electrons
  13. Ionization
    Transfer of electrons from one atom to another (^stability of valence shell)
  14. Anion
    Atom that gained electron (- charge)
  15. Cation
    Atom that loses an electron (+ charge)
  16. What happens to ions with opposite charges?
    They are attracted to each other.
  17. Molecules
    2 or more atoms held together by a chemical bond.....

    N2
  18. Compounds
    Molecules composed of 2 or more different elements

    CO2
  19. Molecular formula
    Shows elements and how many atoms of each are present
  20. Structural formula
    Location of each atom,  structural isomers are revealed
  21. Isomers
    Molecules with identical molecular formula but different arrangement of their atoms
  22. What are 3 types of chemical bonds?
    • Ionic
    • covalent
    • hydrogen
  23. Ionic bonds
    Attraction of oppositely charged ion, electron is donated by one and received by the other.
  24. Is ionic bond weak or strong?
    Weak
  25. Covalent bond
    Is formed by sharing of valence electrons
  26. What are the four types of covalent bonds?
    • Single
    • double
    • non polar
    • polar
  27. Single covalent bond
    Sharing a single pair of electrons
  28. Double covalent bond
    Sharing two pairs of electrons
  29. Non polar covalent bond
    Shared electrons and the strongest of all bonds
  30. Polar covalent bonds
    Negative charge where electrons spend most of the time
  31. Hydrogen bonds
    The weakest of the bonds, weak attraction between a slightly positive hydrogen atom in one molecule and a slightly negative oxygen or nitrogen in another.
  32. Three examples of hydrogen bonds
    • Water molecules
    • dna
    • proteins
  33. Energy
    Capacity to do work, to move something
  34. Potential energy
    Stored energy, not doing work
  35. Chemical energy
    Potential energy stored in the molecular bonds
  36. Example of potential energy
    Water behind a dam
  37. Kinetic energy
    Energy of motion
  38. Example of kinetic energy
    Moving water flowing through a dam
  39. Chemical reaction
    A process in which a covalent bond is formed or broken
  40. Chemical equation
    Symbolizes the course of a chemical reaction, has to be balanced
  41. What are the 3 classes of chemical reactions
    • Decomposition
    • synthesis
    • exchange
  42. Decomposition reactions
    Large molecules broken into smaller ones, a chemical bond is broken, energy is released
  43. What is an example of an decomposition reaction?
    Carbohydrate metabolism
  44. What happens when energy is released in a decomposition reaction?
    Exergonic reaction
  45. Synthesis reaction
    Two or more small molecules combine to form a larger one, needs energy (enderogonic reaction) to create this bond
  46. What is an example of synthesis reaction?
    Protein synthesis
  47. Exchange reaction
    Two molecules exchange atoms or group of atoms
  48. Reversible reactions
    Go in either direction
  49. Oxidation
    Molecule give up electrons and releases energy, oxygen is the acceptor
  50. What is the oxidizing agent in oxidation
    Accepting molecule
  51. Reduction
    Molecule gains electrons and energy
  52. What happens in redeuction
    Molecule is reduced when it accepts electrons, donating agent is the reducing agent
  53. Oxidation reduction ( redox) reactions
    Electrons are often transferred as hydrogen atoms
  54. What are two inorganic compounds
    • Water
    • acid
    • bases
    • salts
  55. Water
    Water and solutions
  56. Acid
    A salute that disasociated to release hydrogen ions and shift pH toward acidity
  57. Base
    A salute that removes hydrogen ions from a solution shifting the pH to basic or alkaline
  58. Salts
    Reactions of an acid with a base
  59. Mixture
    Consists of substances that are physically blended but not chemically combined
  60. Mixtures on our body contain what?
    Water
  61. Solvency
    Is the ability to dissolve other chemicals
  62. Solution
    Solvent + solute
  63. A solvent is a _ in which a solute is _?
    Liquid and dissolved
  64. What is the universal solvent?
    Water
  65. Solute
    Is what you add to the liquid
  66. What is an example of a solution
    Pitcher of water and add crystal light, the solution is iced tea
  67. Solutions
    Mixture of a salute into a solvent
  68. What are the characteristics of a solution?
    • Small solute particles
    • solution is transparent
    • remains mixed
  69. Colloids
    Mixture of protein and water
  70. What are the characteristics of a colloid?
    • Change from liquid to gel state
    • particles too large to pass through cell membrane
    • cloudy
    • remains mixed
  71. What are examples of colloids?
    • Albumin protein in blood
    • gelatin
    • agar culture media
  72. Acids
    Are proton donors, release H+ ions
  73. Base
    is proton acceptor, accepts H+ ions
  74. PH
    The negative exponent of hydrogen ion concentration in a solution measured in moles per liter
  75. Buffers
    A mixture of chemicals that resists changes in pH when acid or base is added to the solution
  76. What does our body use buffers for?
    Prevent change
  77. What are the four categories of carbon compunds
    • Carbohydrates
    • lipids
    • proteins
    • nucleotides and nucleic acid
  78. wOrganic molecules and carbon?
    Binds with other atoms that can provide it with four more electrons to fill its valence shell
  79. What do carbon and organic molecules form?
    Long chains, and branched molecules that serve as the backbone for organic molecules and carries a variety of functional groups
  80. Functional groups
    Atoms attached to carbon backbone, determines chemical properties
  81. macromolecules
    Very large molecules, since carbon can form long chains, some organic molecules are giganticn
  82. What are examples of macromolecules?
    • Starch
    • protein
    • dna
  83. Polymers
    Molecules made of a repetitive series of identical or similar subunit called monomers
  84. Monomers
    An identical unit or similar subunit
  85. Polymerization
    Joining monomers to form a polymer, formed by dehydration synthesis
  86. Starch molecules are a polymer of?
    Glucose
  87. Protein molecules are a polymer of?
    Amino acids
  88. Dehydration synthesis
    Monomers covalently bond together to form a polymer with the removal of a water molecule
  89. What happens in dehydration synthesis?
    A hydroxyl group is removed from one monomer and a hydrogen from the next
  90. Hydrolysis
    Splitting a polymer by the addition of a water molecule, a covalent bond is broken
  91. What do all digestion reactions consist of?
    Hydrolysis reactions
  92. What is the general formula for carbohydrates?
    CH2O
  93. Monosaccaharide
    Is a simple sugar, their formula is c6h12o6
  94. What are the three major monosaccaharides
    • Glucose
    • galactose
    • fructose
  95. Glucose
    Is the most important source of energy, 'metabolic fuel', and is blood sugar
  96. How is glucose produced?
    By the digestion of complex carbohydrates
  97. Disacharrides
    Sugar composed of two monosaccharides
  98. What are the three major disacchardies
    • Sucrose-table sugar=glucose+fructose
    • lactose-sugar in milk=glucose+galactose
    • maltose-grain products=glucose+glucose
  99. Polysaccharides
    Chains of glucose subunits
  100. What are the three major polysaccharides?
    • Starch
    • cellulose
    • glycogen
  101. Starch
    Energy storage in plants, digestible by humans for energy
  102. Cellulose
    Structural molecule of plant cell walls, fiber in our diet
  103. Glycogen
    Energy storage in animals, found in liver and muscle tissue, if energy is need glycogen can be broken down to glucose
  104. Lipids
    Hydrophobic, composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
  105. What the five types of lipids found in humans?
    • Fatty acids
    • triglycerides
    • phospholipids
    • eiconsoids
    • steroids
  106. What is the primary function of a triglyceride?
    Energy storage, insulation and shock absorbtion
  107. What are phospholipids?
    Structural foundation of the cell membrane
  108. Hdl
    Good cholesterol, may help prevent cardiovascular disease
  109. Ldl
    Bad cholesterol, may increase risk of cardiovascular disease
  110. Protein
    A polymer of amino acids
  111. Amino acids
    • Central carbon with three attachments.
    • amino group NH2
    • carboxyl group COOH
    • radical group R group
  112. What group does the properties of an amino acid determine
    R group
  113. Primary structure
    Sequence of amino acids along length
  114. Secondary structure
    H bonding causing spiral, coiling,  folding effect
  115. Tertiary structure
    Further coiling and bending into globular and fibrous shapes
  116. Quaternary structure
    Associations of two or more separate polypeptide chains to form a larger molecule
  117. What are the functions of a protein?
    • Structure
    • communication
    • membrane transport
    • catalysis
    • recognition and protection
    • movement
    • cell adhesion
  118. Structure
    Collagen and keratin
  119. Communication
    Some hormones and cell receptors
  120. Membrane transport
    Channels and carriers
  121. Catalysis
    Enzymes
  122. Recognition and protection
    Immune recognition, antibodies, and dotting proteins
  123. Movement
    Molecular motor=molecules that can change shape repeatedly
  124. Cell adhesion
    Proteins bind cells together, keeps tissues from falling apart
  125. Enzymes
    Proteins that speed up a reaction by lowering the activation energy
  126. Substrate
    Substance an enzyme acts upon
  127. What factors can control the enzyme?
    Temperature and pH
  128. What is the normal pH for salivary amylase and Pepsi?
    7.0 and 2.0
  129. What are the steps of an enzyme reaction?
    • Substrate approaches enzyme molecule
    • substrate binds to active site forming enzyme substrate complex
    • enzyme breaks bonds in substrate
    • reaction products released
    • enzyme repeats process over and over
  130. Cofactors
    Non protein partners, bind to enzyme and change its shape, and essential to function
  131. Coenzymes
    • Organic cofactors derived from water soluble vitamins
    • transfers electrons between enzymes
  132. What are the three components of nucleotides
    • Nitrogenous base
    • sugar
    • one or more phosphate groups
  133. What are the four physiological nucleotides
    • ATP
    • cAMP
    • DNA
    • RNA
  134. ATP
    When a high energy bond is broken
  135. Phosphorylation
    Addition of free phosphate groups to another molecule
  136. DNA
    Double stranded and held together by h bonding. Responsible for cell division, sexual reproduction, protein synthesis
  137. RNA
    Involved in protein synthesis is coded for by DNA, single stranded
  138. What are the three types of RNA
    • Transfer
    • messenger
    • ribsomal

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