Anatomy chapter 2 the chemistry of life
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Anatomy chapter 2 the chemistry of life
The study of living molecules that compose living organisms
Simplest form of matter with unique chemical properties
Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
What do electrons do to the atom?
Determine the chemical properties of an atom
An atom with a full outer energy level is very stable
Are in the outermost shell, they interact with other atoms. Determining chemical bonding properties of an atom.
Differ from one another only in the number of neutrons therefore in the atomic mass
What happens to different isotopes of an element?
Exhibit the same chemical behavior, they differ in physical behavior
What do unstable isotopes give off?
Unstable isotopes that give off radiation, every element has at least one
Radioisotopes decay to stage isotopes, releasing radiation
Charged particles with unequal #of protons & electrons
Transfer of electrons from one atom to another (^stability of valence shell)
Atom that gained electron (- charge)
Atom that loses an electron (+ charge)
What happens to ions with opposite charges?
They are attracted to each other.
2 or more atoms held together by a chemical bond.....
Molecules composed of 2 or more different elements
Shows elements and how many atoms of each are present
Location of each atom, structural isomers are revealed
Molecules with identical molecular formula but different arrangement of their atoms
What are 3 types of chemical bonds?
Attraction of oppositely charged ion, electron is donated by one and received by the other.
Is ionic bond weak or strong?
Is formed by sharing of valence electrons
What are the four types of covalent bonds?
Single covalent bond
Sharing a single pair of electrons
Double covalent bond
Sharing two pairs of electrons
Non polar covalent bond
Shared electrons and the strongest of all bonds
Polar covalent bonds
Negative charge where electrons spend most of the time
The weakest of the bonds, weak attraction between a slightly positive hydrogen atom in one molecule and a slightly negative oxygen or nitrogen in another.
Three examples of hydrogen bonds
Capacity to do work, to move something
Stored energy, not doing work
Potential energy stored in the molecular bonds
Example of potential energy
Water behind a dam
Energy of motion
Example of kinetic energy
Moving water flowing through a dam
A process in which a covalent bond is formed or broken
Symbolizes the course of a chemical reaction, has to be balanced
What are the 3 classes of chemical reactions
Large molecules broken into smaller ones, a chemical bond is broken, energy is released
What is an example of an decomposition reaction?
What happens when energy is released in a decomposition reaction?
Two or more small molecules combine to form a larger one, needs energy (enderogonic reaction) to create this bond
What is an example of synthesis reaction?
Two molecules exchange atoms or group of atoms
Go in either direction
Molecule give up electrons and releases energy, oxygen is the acceptor
What is the oxidizing agent in oxidation
Molecule gains electrons and energy
What happens in redeuction
Molecule is reduced when it accepts electrons, donating agent is the reducing agent
Oxidation reduction ( redox) reactions
Electrons are often transferred as hydrogen atoms
What are two inorganic compounds
Water and solutions
A salute that disasociated to release hydrogen ions and shift pH toward acidity
A salute that removes hydrogen ions from a solution shifting the pH to basic or alkaline
Reactions of an acid with a base
Consists of substances that are physically blended but not chemically combined
Mixtures on our body contain what?
Is the ability to dissolve other chemicals
Solvent + solute
A solvent is a _ in which a solute is _?
Liquid and dissolved
What is the universal solvent?
Is what you add to the liquid
What is an example of a solution
Pitcher of water and add crystal light, the solution is iced tea
Mixture of a salute into a solvent
What are the characteristics of a solution?
Small solute particles
solution is transparent
Mixture of protein and water
What are the characteristics of a colloid?
Change from liquid to gel state
particles too large to pass through cell membrane
What are examples of colloids?
Albumin protein in blood
agar culture media
Are proton donors, release H+ ions
is proton acceptor, accepts H+ ions
The negative exponent of hydrogen ion concentration in a solution measured in moles per liter
A mixture of chemicals that resists changes in pH when acid or base is added to the solution
What does our body use buffers for?
What are the four categories of carbon compunds
nucleotides and nucleic acid
wOrganic molecules and carbon?
Binds with other atoms that can provide it with four more electrons to fill its valence shell
What do carbon and organic molecules form?
Long chains, and branched molecules that serve as the backbone for organic molecules and carries a variety of functional groups
Atoms attached to carbon backbone, determines chemical properties
Very large molecules, since carbon can form long chains, some organic molecules are giganticn
What are examples of macromolecules?
Molecules made of a repetitive series of identical or similar subunit called monomers
An identical unit or similar subunit
Joining monomers to form a polymer, formed by dehydration synthesis
Starch molecules are a polymer of?
Protein molecules are a polymer of?
Monomers covalently bond together to form a polymer with the removal of a water molecule
What happens in dehydration synthesis?
A hydroxyl group is removed from one monomer and a hydrogen from the next
Splitting a polymer by the addition of a water molecule, a covalent bond is broken
What do all digestion reactions consist of?
What is the general formula for carbohydrates?
Is a simple sugar, their formula is c6h12o6
What are the three major monosaccaharides
Is the most important source of energy, 'metabolic fuel', and is blood sugar
How is glucose produced?
By the digestion of complex carbohydrates
Sugar composed of two monosaccharides
What are the three major disacchardies
lactose-sugar in milk=glucose+galactose
Chains of glucose subunits
What are the three major polysaccharides?
Energy storage in plants, digestible by humans for energy
Structural molecule of plant cell walls, fiber in our diet
Energy storage in animals, found in liver and muscle tissue, if energy is need glycogen can be broken down to glucose
Hydrophobic, composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
What the five types of lipids found in humans?
What is the primary function of a triglyceride?
Energy storage, insulation and shock absorbtion
What are phospholipids?
Structural foundation of the cell membrane
Good cholesterol, may help prevent cardiovascular disease
Bad cholesterol, may increase risk of cardiovascular disease
A polymer of amino acids
Central carbon with three attachments.
amino group NH2
carboxyl group COOH
radical group R group
What group does the properties of an amino acid determine
Sequence of amino acids along length
H bonding causing spiral, coiling, folding effect
Further coiling and bending into globular and fibrous shapes
Associations of two or more separate polypeptide chains to form a larger molecule
What are the functions of a protein?
recognition and protection
Collagen and keratin
Some hormones and cell receptors
Channels and carriers
Recognition and protection
Immune recognition, antibodies, and dotting proteins
Molecular motor=molecules that can change shape repeatedly
Proteins bind cells together, keeps tissues from falling apart
Proteins that speed up a reaction by lowering the activation energy
Substance an enzyme acts upon
What factors can control the enzyme?
Temperature and pH
What is the normal pH for salivary amylase and Pepsi?
7.0 and 2.0
What are the steps of an enzyme reaction?
Substrate approaches enzyme molecule
substrate binds to active site forming enzyme substrate complex
enzyme breaks bonds in substrate
reaction products released
enzyme repeats process over and over
Non protein partners, bind to enzyme and change its shape, and essential to function
Organic cofactors derived from water soluble vitamins
transfers electrons between enzymes
What are the three components of nucleotides
one or more phosphate groups
What are the four physiological nucleotides
When a high energy bond is broken
Addition of free phosphate groups to another molecule
Double stranded and held together by h bonding. Responsible for cell division, sexual reproduction, protein synthesis
Involved in protein synthesis is coded for by DNA, single stranded
What are the three types of RNA