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In 1925, Reza Khan overthrew the weakening .... and became Shah and established the ... Dynasty.
Qajar Dynasty. Pahlavi
Reza Shah initiated ...
industrialization, railroad construction, secularization, and the establishment of a national education system.
In 1941, Britain and the USSR invaded Iran to use
Iranian railroad capacity during World War II.
in 1941, The Shah was forced to abdicate in favor of his son, ...
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.
In 1951, ... a high ranking official and prince of Qajar Dynasty, was elected prime minister.
Dr. Mohammed Mossadegh
As prime minister, Mossadegh became enormously popular in Iran after he ...
nationalized Iran's petroleum industry and oil reserves.
In response to Mossadegh nationalizing petrolium, The British government, headed by ..., embargoed Iranian oil and successfully enlisted the United States to join in a plot to depose the democratically elected government of Mossadegh, and in (this year) (this president) authorized Operation ...
Winston Churchill, 1953, President Dwight D. Eisenhower, Ajax
The coup in 1953 was the first time
the US had openly overthrown an elected, civil government
After Operation Ajax, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi's rule became increasingly ...
autocratic and he suppressed all opposition
the Iranian intelligence agency in 1950's under Pahlavi.
...became an active critic of the Shah's ... and publicly denounced the government... he was arrested and imprisoned for 18 months and then sent into exile.
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, White Revolution
The Iranian Revolution, also known as the Islamic Revolution began in... with the first major demonstrations against the Shah.
because of the Iranian revolution, the Shah fled the country in ... and Ayatollah Khomeini returned from exile to....
January 1979, Tehran
Iran officially became an Islamic Republic on ... when Iranians overwhelmingly approved a national referendum to make it so
April 1st, 1979
In December 1979, the country approved a theocratic constitution, whereby Khomeini became ...of the country
Although both ...and... joined with Islamic traditionalists to overthrow the Shah, tens of thousands were killed and executed by the Islamic regime afterward, and the revolution ultimately resulted in an Islamic Republic under Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
nationalists and Marxists
On 4 November 1979, a group of Iranian students ...
seized US embassy personnel, labelling the embassy a "den of spies"
While most of the female and African American hostages from the US embassy in 1979 were released within the first months, the remaining ... hostages were held for ... days.
fifty-two , 444 (!)
who was the president durring the hostage crisis?
In January 1981 the hostages were set free according to the
Algiers Accords of January 19, 1981, ...
brokered by the Algerian government between the United States and Iran to resolve the Iran hostage crisis.
chief provisions of Algiers Accords ...
- 1. US would not intervene politically or militarily in Iranian internal affairs
- 2. The US would remove a freeze on Iranian assets and trade sanctions on Iran
- 3. Both countries would end litigation between their respective governments and citizens referring them to international arbitration, namely the Iran-United States Claims Tribunal.
- 4. The US would ensure that US court decisions regarding the transfer of any property of the former Shah would be independent from "sovereign immunity principles" and would be enforced
- 5. Iranian debts to US institutions would be paid
... decided to take advantage of what he perceived to be disorder in the wake of the Iranian Revolution and its unpopularity with Western governments.
Saddam sought to expand Iraq's access to the Persian Gulf by ...
acquiring territories that Iraq had claimed earlier from Iran during the Shah's rule.
Of chief importance to Iraq was... which not only has a substantial Arab population, but boasted rich oil fields as well.
On the unilateral behalf of the ..., the islands of Abu Musa and the Greater and Lesser Tunbs became objectives as well.
United Arab Emirates,
... the Iraqi army invaded Iran at.., precipitating the Iran–Iraq War.
in 1980, Khuzestan
by 1982, of the Iran-Iraq war...
Iranian forces managed to push the Iraqi army back into Iraq and Khomeini sought to export his Islamic revolution westward into Iraq, especially on the majority Shi'a Arabs living in the country.
when and why did Iraq-Iran war end?
in 1988 when Khomeini, in his words, "drank the cup of poison" and accepted a truce mediated by the United Nations.
The total Iranian casualties of the war were estimated to be anywhere between
500,000 and 1,000,000
How did Iraq and Iran fight in the Iraq/Iran war?
Almost all relevant international agencies have confirmed that Saddam engaged in chemical warfare to blunt Iranian human wave attacks; these agencies unanimously confirmed that Iran never used chemical weapons during the war.
Following the Iran–Iraq War President ...and his administration concentrated on a pragmatic pro-business policy of rebuilding and strengthening the economy without making any dramatic break with the ideology of the revolution.
Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani
Rafsanjani served until ... when he was succeeded by the moderate reformist....
1997, Mohammad Khatami
During his two terms as president, Khatami advocated ... but...
- freedom of expression, tolerance and civil society,
- constructive diplomatic relations with other states including EU and Asian governments,
- and an economic policy that supported free market and foreign investment.
However, Khatami is widely regarded as having been unsuccessful in achieving his goal of making Iran more free and democratic
In the 2005 presidential elections, Iran made yet another change in political direction, when conservative populist candidate ...was elected over ...
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad , Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani
controversy of the 2009 Iranian presidential election..
The Interior Ministry, announced incumbent president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad had won the election with 62.63% receiving 24.5 million vote, while Mir-Hossein Mousavi had come in second place with 13.2 milion votes 33,75%.
The European Union and several western countries expressed concern over alleged irregularities during the vote, and some analysts and journalists from the United States and United Kingdom news media voiced doubts about the authenticity of the results
On June 19, 2009 Supreme Leader ...denounced the pro-Mousavi demonstrations as illegal,and protests the next day were met with stiff resistance from government forces, with many reported deaths
Ayatollah Ali Khamenei
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