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What is family?
Family give the environment and relationships necessary for members to meet basic human needs.
What is community?
a specific population/group of people living in the same area under same regulations and having common values ,interest, and needs.
What can affect the health of residents due to the community?
- -social support systems
- - community health
- -environmental factors
- - the types of agencies that provide shelter for the homeless.
What does a social support system due ?
- people that help meet financial, personal, physical, and emotional needs.
- -supported by family and friends
- -"WHO or WHAT provides support"
What is a community healthcare structure?
- -depends on size a location that determines the types of service available..
- -funded by the state
- -" urban cities have buses to get to doctors; richer housing may have to travel a distance to get somewhere"
What are economic resources?
How is insurance applied to people?
Why do some people not have insurance?
- -insurance is given through most jobs.
- -private healthcare insurance is too EXPENSIVE
- -Part time workers= most do not provide insurance..
What are environmental factors?
What are some examples of enviormental factors?
What are some barriers?
- -can be both harmful & hurtful
- -quality of air and water diverse in cities
- -barriers- transportation, distance, and location.
What effects does the community have on individuals and families?
- -positive influence - health promotion and prevent illness
- -the community plays a major roles on how the people live..
What is community based nursing?
- -provide interventions to manage acute and chronic care..
- - they promote health
- -facilitate self-care
What do community based nurses need to know about the community?
- - know about locations
- -know of the speaclity providers
- - availability and accessibility of supplies
- - know of housing and facilities
What is a managed care system?
provide care that is designed to control cost while still maintaining the quality of that care.
- limits the choice of care providers and may request approval for speacil care.
Who are the planners within the managed care system?
- Physicians, case managers
- aka "gatekeepers"
What is a case management?
-coordinates a patient healthcare to achieve patient wellness and function with advocacy, communication and education.
What do nurses monitor within a case management?
nurses monitor the care provided and insures that the appropriate referrals are made and that the plan has evidence based and follows standards..
What is the primary objective of case management?
identify specific protocals and timetables for care and treatment------- critical pathways
What is a critical pathway?
an individual intervention or a collaboration of nurses to reach a desired patient outcome within a time frame...
a blueprint for care
What is primary healthcare?
brings healthcare as close as possible to where people live and work...
-provides universal access and affordability.
What is primary care?
the delivery of health care services including initial contact and ongoing care...
What two types of practices can be based under primary health care?
Case management and Primary care
What is the average stay at a hospital? Why?
the average stay of the hospital is 4.8 days
shorter stay means that they are focusing on acute care.
Who are they funded by?
Does the patient need health insurance?
- - non-profit
- - financed by local, state and national agencies
- -pt may not have insurance
- -care provided for little to no cost
Who are they funded by?
Does the patient need health insurance?
Profit/ Non profit?
- -both non profit and profit
- -operated by community, churches, etc.
- -pt have private healthcare insurance
stays at the hospital for days/months.
may stay overnight- diagnoses and treatment
What is ambulatory care?
agencies that deliver medical care on an outpt basis.(medexpress)
What is home healthcare ?
nurses provide skilled nursing assessments, teaching, support pt and family, and direct care for pt.
What is long term care?
nurses provide non-medical and medical care for pt with chronic illness
What is respite care?
care that is provided too the primary caregivers of homebound ill, disabled, or elderly pt.
--- give primary caregiver sometime away...
What does the program Hospice asses?
a program providing physical, physiological, social and spiritual care for a dying person and family.
What is the average length for hospice care?
What is bereavement care?
How does it relate to hospice care?
-care for the family ; up to 1 year after their loss of the hospice pt.
What is palliative care?
focuses on the relief of physical, mental, and spiritual distress.
primarily responsible for diagnoses and treatment of a pt.
- supervises the physician,
- gives physical exams, and sutures lacerations
restores the function and prevents future injury of the pt
physically assist challenged pt with disability to new limitations.
- help hearing impaired pt -- speak clearly
- assist pt with stroke -speak
- treat and diagnose pt with swallowing
manage and plan diet appropriate for pt
formulate and dispense meds
counsels pt and family member ans also informs and refers them to other resources.
- provided for citizens over the age of 65 years old.
- -pays for the amount preassigned any extra the hospital absorbs it
- - if its less the hospital makes a profit
What is Part A of Medicare?
- pays most inpatient care
- - covered by the federal gov't
- - hospital care , hospice
What is Part D of Medicare?
What is Part B of Medicare?
- Voluntary- paid by monthly premium covers most outpatient.
- -physician cost, meds, and home health service
program to help people of any age with low income or diability.
HMO (health maintenance organizations)
- prepaid managed care plan the allow subscribers to receive all the medical services.
- -no copay/copay
- -pt does not have a choice about healthcare providers
PPO (preferred provider organizations)
- - can choose provider within network or out
- -do not need a referral
- - pays copay
- -must bay monthly premium by employer or self
- -premiums are higher b/c most is covered
- -but get to pick own provider
What are primary prevention activities?
- Prevention of the problem before it occurs.
- -- immunizations
What are secondary prevention activities?
Early detection and intervention
--- screening for sexually transmitted diseases
What is tertiary prevention activities?
- correction and prevention of deterioration of disease state
- --- teaching insulin administration in a home.
Who is elizabeth poor law?
held the church parishers responsible for providing relief to the poor.
Who is Edward Jenner?
saw that the people who worked around cattle were more likely to have small pox.
Who is Edwin Chadwick?
brought attention to the consequences of unsanitary conditions that resulted in health disparities that shortened the life span of the laboring class
Who is Florence Nightingale?
- - found modern nursing
- dedicated a year to educating nurses in the hospital to promote self-care and the health of the communities
Who is Louis P.?
Who is Joseph L?
Who is Robert K?
Kockh- applied his theory and developed material on how to handle bacteria.
Poster- proposed the theory of germs.
Lester-observed the healing process of fractures
Who is william Rathborne?
est. the concept of visting nurses
Who is Linda Rogers?
first school nurse
Who is Lillian Wald and Mary Brewster?
begin a program of visiting nursing in the US