A&P Ch 9&10

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stef1208
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23627
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A&P Ch 9&10
Updated:
2010-06-15 00:23:51
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anatomy physiology
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A&P Ch 9&10
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  1. NMJ must include:
    • -ACh
    • -generation of action potential
    • -excitation-contraction coupling
    • -exposure of myosin binding site (calcium)
  2. response to a single action potention
    muscle twitch
  3. 3 kinds of graded muscle response
    • 1. wave summation
    • 2. multiple motor unit summation (recruitment)
    • 3. treppe
  4. phenomenon when muscles twitch slightly, even at rest, to keep them firm and healthy
    muscle tone
  5. muscles move: isotonic or isometric?
    isotonic
  6. form of isotonic, muscle gets longer
    ecentric
  7. form of isotonic: shortening of muscle
    concentric
  8. resting length of muscle where it's the strongest
    80-120%
  9. 3 factors for muscle contraction
    • 1. rate
    • 2. number
    • 3. size
  10. fastest way to generate ATP
    direct phosphorylation
  11. get the most power, most ATP
    aerobic mechcanism
  12. force travels through....
    • 1) z disc
    • 2) sarcomere
    • 3) sarcolemma
    • 4) endomysium
    • 5) perimysium
    • 6) epimysium
    • 7) tendon
  13. if the length of expansion of muscle is too long (over 120%) there is no interaction between ______ and _____
    actin & myosin
  14. 3 muscle fiber types:
    • slow oxidative (no fatigue)
    • fast oxidative (twitch)
    • fast glycolytic (power)
  15. hypertrophied cells are from _______ exercise
    resistance
  16. not hypertrophied cells are from _______ exercise
    aerobic (endurance...more mitochondria)
  17. carries oxygen in muscle cell
    myoglobin
  18. muscle fatigue means...
    no ATP
  19. level of blood glucose
    70-110 mg/dL
  20. 3 (or 4) pathways to make ATP
    • 1. aerobic from myoglobin (lasts only a few seconds)
    • 2. phosphagen system
    • 3. glygogen-lactic-acid (2 min)
    • 4. aerobic respiration
  21. the fight or flight response
    sympathetic division
  22. rest & digest division
    parasympathetic
  23. smooth muscle is governed by this nervous system
    ANS
  24. most common location of smooth muscle
    around tubes
  25. Structure of smooth muscle fiber
    • -small, spindle shaped
    • -one nucleus
    • -no striations, no sarcomeres
    • -no troponin
    • -gap junctions
    • -no neuromuscular junctions
    • -contractions propel stuff through
    • -consumes less atp
  26. contraction of smooth muscle
    • -Ach
    • -Epi
    • -NE
    • -contracts when stretched, then relaxes
  27. types of smooth muscle
    • -single-unit (lots of them together)...most common type of smooth muscle
    • -multiunit (independent)

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