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The most predominant form of Hb is what?
HbA comprised of 2 alpha globulins and 2 beta globulins, each carrying a Fe containing heme group.
What comprises HbA2?
Two alpha globulins and 2 beta globulins. 96%- most common
What makes up HbA2
2 alpha globulins and 2 delta globulins (partial sign)
What makes up HbS
2 alpha globulins and 2 mutated beta globulin with a valine substituted for glutamine.
What is Spherocytosis? What causes it? What is the result?
Hereditary disease with Sphere like rbc's from the lack of Plasma Protein Spectrin. Hemolysis: rupture.
What is eliptocytosis? How does it occur. What can happen?
Heriditary disease producing elliptical shaped rbc. Lack of BAND 4.1 PLASMA PROTEINS. Can't adapt to changes. Osmotic pressure control problems -> hemolysis
What happens in Anemia and what are some possible causes?
Anemia is when there is low rbc or Hb. Lack of Folic Acid, B12 can cause reduced production of RBC. Hemorrhage, increased destruction or lack of production of rbc. If you destroy Parietal cells in gut, the intrinsic factors are gone which absorb B12. (Pernicious Anemia)
What is Pernicious Anemia.
Type of Anemia: If you destroy Parietal cells in gut, the intrinsic factors are gone which absorb B12. This will reduce production of rbc.
What is EPO (erythropoietin)?
Performance enhancing drug that induces polycythemia, or increased rbc concentration.
Luekocytes are divided into 2 categories. What do they look like under microscope? What do both categories of leukocytes have?
- Agranulocytes (has non specific granules) appear large and dark stained because peroxidase positive. Monocytes and lymphocytes.
- Granulocytes- has SPECIFIC PROTEINS (stains dark) BEN - Basophils, Eosinophils, Neutrophils.
Both have Azurophilic granules containing lysosomes that stain lightly
Neutrophil size? Nucleus?
10-12 microns vs. 7.8 rbc size, segmented, multilobed nucleus (adults: 3-5 lobes, 3% with Barr body. Has granulocytes but stain neutral (not too blue, not too pink)
What 3 types of granules do Neutrophils have?
- Granolocytes- the small, pale, peroxide negative granules
- Azurophilic Granules - larger non specific. Contain MPO- myeloperixidases, so peroxidase +, stains dark)
- Tertiary Granulocytes (with P & M, phosphatases and metalloproteinases that help N migrate connective tissue)
What forms pus?
Neutrophils that form phagolysosomes, eat bacteria and themselves die in the process; form pus.
Natural killer cells are lymphocytes derived from the same precursor as T & B lymphocytes (CLP- Common lymphoid progenitor) but differ in what 3 main ways?
- Do not have T & B surface markers
- Have antiviral agents interferon gamma (IFN-y)
- Programmed to kill certain virus and tumor cells
Hematopoeisis occurs where before birth and after?
- Before birth: 1. Yolk Sac
- 2. @ 3 months mostly liver and some spleen
- 3. After birth- Bone marrow
Dendrites can be made from what 2 progenitors?
GMP and CLP; Granulocyte Monocyte Progenitor and Common Lymphoid Progenitor
Monocyte size? Nucleus? Characteristic cell contents?
Largest final stage Leukocyte (18 microns!) Kidney bean nucleus. Golgi complex mitochondria, and & lysosomes aka azurophilic granules free ribosomes.
In-transit leukocytes: bone marrow -> body tissue as phagocytes, forming the MPS: Monophagocytotic System.
What organ systems are part of MPS (Monophagocytotic system) and what are monocytes called in each organ?
- Kupffercells (liver) - perisinusoidal macrophages
- Langherhans (skin dendritic cells)- Langerhans cells
- Connective tissue (histiocytes)
How does Hb breakdown?
Hemoglobin =heme + globin.Globin à amino acids which are reusednHeme releases Fe, which enters Fe storage pool in the spleen as hemosiderin or ferritin, which is reused for Hb synthesis
Where do lymphopeoisis start and end? And initiated by what?
- nHSC à
- CLP : dependent on transcription factorsnMain site for lymphopoiesis is the bone marrow ncontinuous proliferation occurs in the peripheral lymphatic organs
Where is red bone marrow located?
medullary cavity of long bone and spaces of spongy bone
Bone marrow consists of what?
blood vessels, sinusoids, and a spongelike network / cords of hemopoietic cells
What are sinusoids?
Capillaries in hematopoietic cells(small blood vessels in liver, spleen & bone marrow) consists of endothelium, basal lamina, incomplete layer of adventitial (reticular) cells
What are functions of sinusoids?
barrier between hemopoietic compartment / cells and peripheral circulation
Hemoglobin breaks down into heme an
nHeme releases Fe, which enters Fe storage pool in the spleen as hemosiderin or ferritin, which is reused for Hb synthesis
Name stages of hematopoiesis and major characteristics
- Proeurythroblast - slightly basophilic, largest size 12-20 microns, some ribosomes
- Basophilic erythroblast - mitosis begins, lots of polyribosomes for Hb. Very basophilic.
- Polychromatic eurythroblast- checkerboard, lilac stain
- Orthochromatic eurythroblast, (normal blast) no dividing, late normal blast start fimbrae to expel nucleus.
- Polychromatic eurythroclast (reticulocyte) acidophilic (pink stain) only small remnants of dna may remain
What comprises the membrane zone of platelets?
§Membrane zone§2 types of membrane channels - open canalicular system (OCS) (remnant of the platelet demarcation channel ) - dense tubular system (DTS) (storage site for calcium)
What 4 granules are found in platelets? What do each do?
- alpha, delta, gamma Y, lambda A
- alpha- (hi %) coagulation, fibrinogen, plasminogen
- delta- (change takes energy) partial, ADP ATP, histamine vasoconstriction
- gamma Y- hydrolytic enzymes
- lambda A - clot resorption
How does ineffective heme degradation cause jaundice?
nHeme is also degraded to bilirubin nBilirubin binds to albumin and travels to the liver via the bloodnIn the liver - bilirubin is conjugated with glucuronic acid - excretion occurs in the bile as bilirubin diglucuronide