Oral Pathology for Dental Hygienist
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Oral Pathology for Dental Hygienist
Chapter Ibsen Phelan
Introduction to Preliminary Diagnosis of Oral Lesions
(8) Descriptors for Clinical Appearance Soft Tissue Lesions
-Circumscribed, elevated lesion more than 5mm in diameter
-Usually contains serous fluid
-Looks like a blister
-A segment or lobe that is a part of the whole.
-Lobes sometimes appear fused together
-Area usually distinguised by a color different from that of the surrounding tissue.
-Flat, does not protrude above the surface of the normal tissue.
-Circumscribed lesion usually less than 1 cm in diameter.
-Elevated, protrudes above the surface of normal surrounding tissue.
-Attached by a stemlike or stalklike base
-(Similar to that of a mushroom).
-Variously sized circumscribed elevations containing pus.
-Describing the base of a lesion that is flat or broad instead of stemlike.
-Small, elevated lesion less than 1cm in diameter
-CONTAINS SEROUS FLUID
(2) Descriptors for Soft Tissue Consistency
-Palpable SOLID lesion up to 1 cm in diameter found in soft tissue
-Can occur above, level, or beneath the skin surface
-Evaluation of a lesion by feeling it with the fingers to the determine the texture of the area.
-Descriptive terms for palpation:
These terms also describe the consistency of the lesion)
(3) Descriptors for Color of Lesion
Examples of Colors to describe the Color of Lesion
An abnormal redness of the mucosa or gingiva
-Paleness of the skin or mucosal tissues
(2) Descriptors used to indicate size of lesion
1. Centimeter (cm)
2. Millimeter (mm)
-One hundredth of a meter
-Equivalent to a little less than 1/2 inch
-One thousandth of a meter
-Periodontal probe measures the size or diameter of a lesion in millimeters
(6) Descriptors used to document Surface Texture
-Cleft, groove showing prominent depth
-Normal or Otherwise
-Resembling small, nipple shaped projections or elevations found in clusters.
(9) Radiographic Terms Used to Describe Lesions In Bone
-Scalloping around the root
-Process by which parts of a whole join together, or fuse, to make one.
-Describes lesions w/borders not well defined
-Impossible to detect the exact parameters of the lesion
--May make treatment more difficult
--Depending on biopsy more radicular
-Lesion that extends beyond the confines of one distinct area
-Defined as many lobes or parts that are somewhat fused together, making up the entire lesion
-Multilocular radiolucency is sometimes described as resembling soap bubbles
-IE: Odontogenic Keratocyst
-Black or dark areas on the radiograph
-Less dense tissue such as the pulp is seen as a radiolucent structure
-White or light areas on a radiograph
-Results from the inability of radiant energy to pass through
-Denser structures, the lighter or whiter it appears on the radiograph.
Define Root Resorption
-Apex of the tooth appears shortened, blunted & irregularly shaped
-Occurs, as a response to stimuli, such as:
External Root Resorption
-Arises from tissues outside the tooth such as the periodontal ligament
Internal Root Resorption
-Triggered by pulpal tissue reaction from within the tooth
Scalloping Around The Root
-Radiolucent lesion that extends between the roots
-Appears to extend up the periodontal ligament
--IE: Traumatic Bone Cyst
-Having one compartment or unit that is well defined or outlined
-Lesion w/borders that are specifically defined
-One can clearly see exact margins and extent
How is a diagnosis made?
-Gathering information that is relevant to the patient and the lesion being evaluated.
-Use (8) diagnostic categories to accomplish this.
List the (8) Diagnostic Categories
1. Clinical diagnosis
2. Radiographic diagnosis
3. Historical diagnosis
4. Laboratory diagnosis
5. Microscopic diagnosis
6. Surgical diagnosis
7. Therapeutic diagnosis
8. Differential findings