Oral Pathology for Dental Hygienist

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Anonymous
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236284
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Oral Pathology for Dental Hygienist
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2013-09-22 15:12:26
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Chapter Ibsen Phelan
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Introduction to Preliminary Diagnosis of Oral Lesions
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  1. (8) Descriptors for Clinical Appearance Soft Tissue Lesions
    • 1.  Bulla
    • 2.  Lobule
    • 3.  Macule
    • 4.  Papule
    • 5.  Pedunculated
    • 6.  Pustules
    • 7.  Sessile
    • 8.  Vesicle
  2. Define Bulla
    • -Circumscribed, elevated lesion more than 5mm in diameter 
    • -Usually contains serous fluid
    • -Looks like a blister
  3. Define Lobule
    • -A segment or lobe that is a part of the whole.
    • -Lobes sometimes appear fused together
  4. Define Macule
    • -Area usually distinguised by a color different from that of the surrounding tissue.
    • -Flat, does not protrude above the surface of the normal tissue.
    • -IE:  Freckle
  5. Define Papule
    • -Circumscribed lesion usually less than 1 cm in diameter.
    • -Elevated, protrudes above the surface of normal surrounding tissue.
  6. Define Pedunculated
    • -Attached by a stemlike or stalklike base
    • -(Similar to that of a mushroom).
  7. Define Pustules
    -Variously sized circumscribed elevations containing pus.
  8. Define Sessile
    -Describing the base of a lesion that is flat or broad instead of stemlike.
  9. Define Vesicle
    • -Small, elevated lesion less than 1cm in diameter
    • -CONTAINS SEROUS FLUID
  10. (2) Descriptors for Soft Tissue Consistency
    • 1.  Nodule
    • 2.  Palpation
  11. Define Nodule
    • -Palpable SOLID lesion up to 1 cm in diameter found in soft tissue
    • -Can occur above, level, or beneath the skin surface
  12. Define Palpation
    • -Evaluation of a lesion by feeling it with the fingers to the determine the texture of the area.
    • -Descriptive terms for palpation:
    • --Soft
    • --Firm
    • --Semi-firm
    • --Fluid filled
    • ---(These terms also describe the consistency of the lesion)
  13. (3) Descriptors for Color of Lesion
    • 1.  Colors
    • 2.  Erythema
    • 3.  Pallor
  14. Examples of Colors to describe the Color of Lesion
    • -Red
    • -Pink
    • -Salmon
    • -White
    • -Blue-black
    • -Gray
    • -Brown
  15. Define Erythema
    An abnormal redness of the mucosa or gingiva
  16. Define Pallor
    -Paleness of the skin or mucosal tissues
  17. (2) Descriptors used to indicate size of lesion
    • 1.  Centimeter (cm)
    • 2.  Millimeter (mm)
  18. Centimeter (cm)
    • -One hundredth of a meter
    • -Equivalent to a little less than 1/2 inch
  19. Millimeter (mm)
    • -One thousandth of a meter
    • -Periodontal probe measures the size or diameter of a lesion in millimeters
  20. (6) Descriptors used to document Surface Texture
    • 1. Corrugated
    • 2. Fissure
    • 3. Papillary
    • 4. Smooth
    • 5. Rough
    • 6. Folded
  21. Define Corrugated
    -Wrinkled
  22. Define Fissure
    • -Cleft, groove showing prominent depth
    • -Normal or Otherwise
  23. Define Papillary
    -Resembling small, nipple shaped projections or elevations found in clusters.
  24. (9) Radiographic Terms Used to Describe Lesions In Bone
    • -Coalescence
    • -Diffuse
    • -Multilocular
    • -Radiolucent
    • -Radiopaque
    • -Root resorption
    • -Scalloping around the root
    • -Unilocular
    • -Well circumscribed
  25. Define Coalescence
    -Process by which parts of a whole join together, or fuse, to make one.
  26. Define Diffuse
    • -Describes lesions w/borders not well defined
    • -Impossible to detect the exact parameters of the lesion
    • --May make treatment more difficult
    • --Depending on biopsy more radicular
  27. Define Multilocular
    • -Lesion that extends beyond the confines of one distinct area
    • -Defined as many lobes or parts that are somewhat fused together, making up the entire lesion
    • -Multilocular radiolucency is sometimes described as resembling soap bubbles
    • -IE:  Odontogenic Keratocyst
  28. Define Radiolucent
    • -Black or dark areas on the radiograph
    • -Less dense tissue such as the pulp is seen as a radiolucent structure
  29. Define Radiopaque
    • -White or light areas on a radiograph
    • -Results from the inability of radiant energy to pass through
    • -Denser structures, the lighter or whiter it appears on the radiograph.
  30. Define Root Resorption
    • -Observed radiographically
    • -Apex of the tooth appears shortened, blunted & irregularly shaped
    • -Occurs, as a response to stimuli, such as:
    • --Cyst
    • --Tumor
    • --Trauma
  31. External Root Resorption
    -Arises from tissues outside the tooth such as the periodontal ligament
  32. Internal Root Resorption
    -Triggered by pulpal tissue reaction from within the tooth
  33. Scalloping Around The Root
    • -Radiolucent lesion that extends between the roots
    • -Appears to  extend up the periodontal ligament
    • --IE:  Traumatic Bone Cyst
  34. Unilocular
    -Having one compartment or unit that is well defined or outlined
  35. Well circumscribed
    • -Lesion w/borders that are specifically defined
    • -One can clearly see exact margins and extent
  36. How is a diagnosis made?
    • -Gathering information that is relevant to the patient and the lesion being evaluated. 
    • -Use (8) diagnostic categories to accomplish this.
  37. List the (8) Diagnostic Categories
    • 1. Clinical diagnosis
    • 2. Radiographic diagnosis
    • 3. Historical diagnosis
    • 4. Laboratory diagnosis
    • 5. Microscopic diagnosis
    • 6. Surgical diagnosis
    • 7. Therapeutic diagnosis
    • 8. Differential findings

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