Oral Pathology for Dental Hygienist
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(8) Descriptors for Clinical Appearance Soft Tissue Lesions
- 1. Bulla
- 2. Lobule
- 3. Macule
- 4. Papule
- 5. Pedunculated
- 6. Pustules
- 7. Sessile
- 8. Vesicle
- -Circumscribed, elevated lesion more than 5mm in diameter
- -Usually contains serous fluid
- -Looks like a blister
- -A segment or lobe that is a part of the whole.
- -Lobes sometimes appear fused together
- -Area usually distinguised by a color different from that of the surrounding tissue.
- -Flat, does not protrude above the surface of the normal tissue.
- -IE: Freckle
- -Circumscribed lesion usually less than 1 cm in diameter.
- -Elevated, protrudes above the surface of normal surrounding tissue.
- -Attached by a stemlike or stalklike base
- -(Similar to that of a mushroom).
-Variously sized circumscribed elevations containing pus.
-Describing the base of a lesion that is flat or broad instead of stemlike.
- -Small, elevated lesion less than 1cm in diameter
- -CONTAINS SEROUS FLUID
(2) Descriptors for Soft Tissue Consistency
- -Palpable SOLID lesion up to 1 cm in diameter found in soft tissue
- -Can occur above, level, or beneath the skin surface
- -Evaluation of a lesion by feeling it with the fingers to the determine the texture of the area.
- -Descriptive terms for palpation:
- --Fluid filled---(These terms also describe the consistency of the lesion)
(3) Descriptors for Color of Lesion
- 1. Colors
- 2. Erythema
- 3. Pallor
Examples of Colors to describe the Color of Lesion
An abnormal redness of the mucosa or gingiva
-Paleness of the skin or mucosal tissues
(2) Descriptors used to indicate size of lesion
- 1. Centimeter (cm)
- 2. Millimeter (mm)
- -One hundredth of a meter
- -Equivalent to a little less than 1/2 inch
- -One thousandth of a meter
- -Periodontal probe measures the size or diameter of a lesion in millimeters
(6) Descriptors used to document Surface Texture
- 1. Corrugated
- 2. Fissure
- 3. Papillary
- 4. Smooth
- 5. Rough
- 6. Folded
- -Cleft, groove showing prominent depth
- -Normal or Otherwise
-Resembling small, nipple shaped projections or elevations found in clusters.
(9) Radiographic Terms Used to Describe Lesions In Bone
- -Root resorption
- -Scalloping around the root
- -Well circumscribed
-Process by which parts of a whole join together, or fuse, to make one.
- -Describes lesions w/borders not well defined
- -Impossible to detect the exact parameters of the lesion
- --May make treatment more difficult
- --Depending on biopsy more radicular
- -Lesion that extends beyond the confines of one distinct area
- -Defined as many lobes or parts that are somewhat fused together, making up the entire lesion
- -Multilocular radiolucency is sometimes described as resembling soap bubbles
- -IE: Odontogenic Keratocyst
- -Black or dark areas on the radiograph
- -Less dense tissue such as the pulp is seen as a radiolucent structure
- -White or light areas on a radiograph
- -Results from the inability of radiant energy to pass through
- -Denser structures, the lighter or whiter it appears on the radiograph.
Define Root Resorption
- -Observed radiographically
- -Apex of the tooth appears shortened, blunted & irregularly shaped
- -Occurs, as a response to stimuli, such as:
External Root Resorption
-Arises from tissues outside the tooth such as the periodontal ligament
Internal Root Resorption
-Triggered by pulpal tissue reaction from within the tooth
Scalloping Around The Root
- -Radiolucent lesion that extends between the roots
- -Appears to extend up the periodontal ligament
- --IE: Traumatic Bone Cyst
-Having one compartment or unit that is well defined or outlined
- -Lesion w/borders that are specifically defined
- -One can clearly see exact margins and extent
How is a diagnosis made?
- -Gathering information that is relevant to the patient and the lesion being evaluated.
- -Use (8) diagnostic categories to accomplish this.
List the (8) Diagnostic Categories
- 1. Clinical diagnosis
- 2. Radiographic diagnosis
- 3. Historical diagnosis
- 4. Laboratory diagnosis
- 5. Microscopic diagnosis
- 6. Surgical diagnosis
- 7. Therapeutic diagnosis
- 8. Differential findings
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