What position is the thumb in when hand is pronated? (palm down)
Position of the hand for the AP forearm
supinated (palm up)
Hand is pronated, fingers extended and separated, central ray is directly perpendicular to 3rd MCP_ what projection is this?
PA wrist - are the fingers flexed or extended? Why?
flexed, to bring the carpal bones closer to image receptor (IR)
Lateral 4th finger - is the hand on the radial or ulnar surface?
What happens if hand is pronated for an AP forearm
radius crosses over ulna
what surface is the forearm on for lateral?
Centering point of finger
proximal interphalangeal joint
oblique thumb centering point
1st metacarpophalangeal joint
PA wrist centering point
mid carpal area
Lateral forearm centering point
PA hand centering point
3rd metacarpophalangeal joint
Recommended source-to-image-receptor-distance (SID) for extremity images
Norgaard or ball catcher's projection is used to demonostrate
Carpal bone best demonstrated on AP oblique projection of the wrist
how is the central ray directed for the Gaynor Hart method/carpal tunnel? Where does it enter?
25-30 degrees to the long axis of the hand, entering 1 inch distal to base of 3rd metacarpal base
Scaphoid is best demonstrated in which projection
ulnar deviation/ Stetcher
which lateral of the hand will demonstrate foreign bodies?
lateral in extension
what must be included on all hand radiographs?
14 phalanges, 5 metacarpals, 8 carpal bones, distal end of radius and ulna
PA oblique of the hand MCP joint form a __________ angle with the IR
45 Degree angle
what structures must be included on all of the wrist radiographs
8 carpals, proximal ends/bases/ of metacarpals and distal end of the radius and ulna
Wrist PA or IR, finger end of IR elevated 20 degrees, this describes which projection? What is demonstrated?
Stecher/PA axial demonstrates navicular
When performing a lateral forearm, what structures must all lie in the same plane
shoulder, humerus, forearm, and hand
what must be included on all finger radiographs
proximal, middle, and distal phalanges and head of the metacarpal
hand rests on which surface for a lateral 2nd digit
What is the difference between AP and PA thumb when looking at the radiograph
PA thumb is magnified
Where does the central ray enter for lateral projections of the hand
2nd metacapophalangeal joints
where does the central ray enter for the PA projection of the wrist
mid carpal area
where does the central ray for a lateral projection of the forearm
what is the recommended kVp range for finger, hand, wrist, and forearm radiographs
an AP projection of the thumb requires that the patient's hand be rotated into extreme:
for a lateral projection of the wrist which surface of the wrist should be in contact with image receptor (IR)
a lateral wrist should demonstrate superimposed what?
metacarpals, carpals, and distal ends of the radius and ulna
for the lateral projection of the forearm, how should the elbow be position
flexed 90 degrees in the lateral position
how is the hand placed for a lateral forearm projection
lateral position resting on ulnar side
what projections of the upper limb require the hand to be supinated
what projection requires the shoulder, forearm, wrist, and hand to be in the same plane
What view of the thumb is demonstrated with fingers completely flexed?
what is referred to as a boxer's fracture
fractures of the 4th and 5th metacarpals
what bone is of primary interest when performing ulnar deviation
If no angle sponge is used to support the cassette during the Stecher method, how is the central ray directed
20 degrees toward the elbow
when performing Gaynor Hart, how is the wrist position?
How should the long axis of the hand be placed for carpal tunnel view
how is the central ray directed for the carpal canal view
PA digits projection where do you center the (IR)
(PIP) proximal inter phalangeal joint
Second and fifth digits directly in contact with IR and 3rd and 4th placed parallel with IR
What is the 3rd metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint
how many bone are found in your hand
the hand bones can be subdivided into 3 groups what are they?
1) phalanges- bones of digits (finger and thumb)
2) metacarpals- slightly concave anteriorly (form palm of hand) they are numbered from 1-5 beginning from lateral side of the hand (metacarpal heads are commonly called knuckles) 1st metacarpal (thumb) has 2 small sesamoids bones below neck (head- distally, base - proximal)
3) carpals- bones of the wrist there are 8
they are in 2 horizontal rows (Short bones)
carpal bone closest to 1st metacarpal at base of (thumb)
trapezium also known as (greater multangular)
carpal bone directly beneath 2nd metacarpal
trapezoid (lesser multangular)
carpal bone beneath trapezoid and directly on head of radius
carpal bone directly below 3rd and 4th metacarpal
capitate (os magnum)
carpal bone directly below 4th and 5th metacarpal
carpal bone touching the hamate located below 5 digit
directly below the pisiform
triquetrum (cuneiform or triangular)
located beneath capitate next to scaphoid
what two bones are in the forearm
1) radius - located on lateral side of forearm(closest to the thumb)
2) ulna- located on the medial side of forearm (closest to pinky)
Body long and slender, tapers inferiorly upper portion is large contains has 2 processes: proximal process is (olecranon) forms proximal portion of trochlear notch, distal process (coronoid) triangular in shape forms lower portion of trochlear notch, has a depression (radial notch) distal end contains round process on lateral side (head) and a conic projection called (ulnar styloid process)
proximal end small presents a flat disklike head above a constricted neck just inferiorly (below) neck on medial side of body roughened process called radial tuberosity, distal end is broad and flattened