The _______ Act of 1862 gave _____ acres of free land to settlers who would live on the land for ___ years and improve it.
How many acres did the US govt give away under the Homestead Act?
What was the purpose of the Homestead Act?
To get people to settle in the West;
It helped stimulate the Westward land rush
How much did it cost to build a sod house in 1860s?
A mounted Plains warrior could ride _____ yards and shoot ___ arrows in the time it took a soldier to _______.
300; 20; load his gun
What killed most of the Indians?
What would drop from the dirt roof of sod houses?
What happened after gold was discovered in the Blackhills of the Dakotas?
miners rushed in even though the Sioux legally held the land and considered it sacred
What did Custer do?
Led 265 men into the largest Indian camp ever assembled on the Great Plains near Little Bighorn River in Montana & was wiped out.
Who led the Sioux against the US Cavalry in 1872?
Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull
How much federal land grant did the govt give to the RR?
180 million acres (1/10 size of US)
How were the RR financed?
State, federal, and international loans & private investors & subsidies
Who mostly built the RR?
CHINESE mostly. Also Irish and Mexican immigrants
How many buffalo were slaughtered in 30 years? How many between 1872-1874? Why?
30 million; 3 million;
To get rid of Indians
How many buffalo were left at the end of the slaughter?
1,000 & were saved by being domesticated
The US govt took _____ acres of ______ territory and opened it for settlement which was the last free land given away by US
2 million; Indian
People lined up on the ____ border before the Indian territory in ___ was given away, hence the name ______.
Arkansas, OK, Sooners
How many settlers (in one day) took over the OK Indian territory that the govt gave away?
What did the Dawes Act do?
Reduced Indian land from 138 million acres to 48 million;
Broke up land into reservations with individual allotments of land
Why did the Dawes Act break up Indian reservations?
to prevent Indians from being unified in a tribe
When did the Dawes Act take place?
By 1890, how much land did Euro Americans control that was formerly occupied by Indians?
What did the US govt do to the Indian children?
Took them away from their parents
sent to boarding schools
stripped them of clothing
cut their hair
doused with kerosene
given new names & clothes
The _______ was badly managed and corrupt and the Indians located on the reservations suffered poverty and starvation. $$ was not being used to help Native Americans.
Bureau of Indian Affairs
What was the Plains Indians Ghost Dance supposed to do?
get rid of white people from the Plains
& bring the Buffalo back
The _______ was a religion of despair.
Plains Indians Ghost Dance
What led to the last armed confrontation during the Plains Indians Wars?
The Ghost Dance. The govt felt threatened by it
What was the last armed confrontation during the Plains Indians Wars?
The Massacre at Wounded Knee
Who was killed in 1890 by Indian police?
What did the Supreme Ct grant to the Sioux in 1980?
$122.5 million settlement which they did NOT accept. They wanted land returned.
______ towns like Virginia City, NV exploded into urban industrial centers every bit as ____ as their eastern counterparts.
_____ and _____ women have the largest group of women at the legendary Comstock Lode.
Irish & Irish American
A lot of _____ worked in the mining camps and suffered brutal treatment.
By 1870, over ________ Chinese immigrants lived in the US but were denied _______.
What did the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 do?
Barred further Chinese immigration
Who invented gunpowder?
Between 1873 and 1882, what produced over $100 million?
The Big Bonanza
During the Big Bonanza, how far down did miners work and at what temp?
120 degrees F
In the hard-rock mines of the West, accidennts in the 1870's disabled ___ out of every ___ miners and killed ___ in ___.
What happened to the miners that avoided accidents to disable them?
They still breathed dangerous air and eventually contracted respiratory diseases
How many head of cattle at a time were herded on trails between 1865 and 1885?
What revolutionized the cattle business?
How many TX Longhorns went to market before the open range began to close in the 1880s?
What caused some of the bloodiest wars in US history?
When the Cowboys cut the barbed wire and fought with the ranchers
He grew up working with fiberglass and constructed the "Vaquero" statue.
What happened to the cowboys after the trail rides?
They became seasonal laborers
He had a "frontier thesis" and speculated that American History is best explained by the frontier which shaped the character & characteristics of Americans.
Frederick Jackson Turner
A form of political corruption; the unscrupulous use of a politician's authority for personal gain
Who coined the term "Gilded Age"?
Mark Twain, real name Samuel Langhorne Clemens
Who was the first business leader?
What did Jay Gould do?
He bought stock in RR at cheap prices and sold them for huge profits
Who became the most hated man in America and is related to the "mightiest disaster"?
What other industries grew with the RRs?
Steel, timber, coal, telegraph lines
By 1900 we had how many miles of RR track?
Speculation was the game and wealth was the goal for this person.
Who build the biggest steel business in the world in the Gilded Age?
Carnegie built the most up-to-date _______ in the world
Bessemer steel plant
______ process had iron and alloy mixed together.
How much did Carnegie make per year by 1900?
Carnegie pioneered a system of business organization called _______.
Carnegie applied the lessons of _____ and ______ and turned ____ into the nation's first big business.
cost accounting; efficiency; steel
Carnegie increased output from ___ tons a week to _____ tons a week.
Carnegie cut the cost of steel from ____ to ____ a ton.
What is vertical integration?
All aspects of a business are under the same control. No profit paid to anyone else.
By 1900, Carnegie's mills produced more steel than all of _____.
What did Carnegie do in 1901?
Sold the steel company to J.P. Morgan for $480 million
Carnegie believed the wealthy should be what?
How many libraries did Carnegie open in the US?
Who controlled 9/10 of the oil-refining business in 1860s and 1870s?
John D. Rockefeller and his Standard Oil Company
Who's father peddled quack cures for cancer?
At age 25, he controlled the largest oil refinery in Cleveland.
What did Rockefeller demand from the railroads?
Secret rebates in exchange for his steady business. He would pay the RR to ship his oil and they would give him $$ back.
Who discovered oil?
What did Rockefeller add to control the refining process?
Horizontal Integration. He bought up all the oil refineries which gave him exclusive control over one industry.
What did Rockefeller form from his monopoly?
What is a trust?
A union of stockholders and holding companies under one central administration
Who are the three muckrakers?
Ida Tarbell - corruption in Standard Oil Company
Ida B. Wells - lynching
Upton Sinclair - Meatpacking plants
Who exposed Rockefeller's ruthless business practices?
Who slept with a revolver under his pillow?
What was JP Morgan's nickname?
Jupiter, ruler of Roman gods
He was a "finance capitalist"
He controlled interlocking directorates (like an umbrella with different businesses under it)
How did JP Morgan integrate?
What did JP Morgan do to the stock?
Watered it. Sold more shares than the company was worth
What did JP Morgan do when he bought Carnegie Steel?
He bought another steel company and consolidated them into US Steel
Who created GE?
Who created GE?
Who assassinated Garfield?
What happened on July 2, 1881?
Charles Gouteau shot Garfield in the back at a train station in Wash DC (less than 4 mos after Garfield took office)
Why was Garfield assassinated?
Guiteau thought he should have gotten a position under the SPOILS system
Who took office after Garfield was shot?
What actually caused Garfield's death?
Infection from the Dr sticking his dirty hands in the wound
How many civil service jobs did the Pendleton Civil Service Act create?
How did people show they were qualified for a civil service job?
They took an exam
What was the nation's first federal regulatory agency?
Interstate Commerce Commission in 1887
At the time, the Interstate Commerce Act was more of what?
a precedent than a watchdog; there was not much regulation
Presidents used to force govt employees to contribute to their campaigns. What outlawed that?
The Pendleton Act
Farmers in midwest were angry because they felt they were suffering from unfair shipping practices that RR were using. What was established to regulate the RR and other transportation services?
Interstate Commerce Commission
What Act was passed in 1890 under the influence of Roosevelt?
Sherman Anti-trust Act
When and by whom was the telephone invented?
1876, Alexander Graham Bell
By 1895, how many telephones were in the US? How many by 1900?
When was trust actually "busted"?
During Jimmy Carter's presidency
Thomas Edison promised a new minor invention every _______ and a big thing every _______.
Name a few things invented by Thomas Edison.
Light bulb (tungston filament)
Motion Picture Projector
Incandescent Light Bulb
Edison averaged a patent every ____ days and obtained _____ patents - more than any other person in history.
What did JP Morgan do in 1892?
He consolidated Edison General Electric and dropped Edison from the name
What Carnegie did for steel, ______ did for meat packing.
Swift _______ integrated the meat packing business.
What type of production and distribution did Swift use?
mass production; refrigerated RR cars
Who was CJ Walker?
A female entrepreneur who invented black hair care and beauty products
How much is the black beauty business valued at today?
over $4 billion
What opened to door to the mail order catalog business?
RFD = Rural Free Delivery
What prompted the departure of more than a million Jews in two decades?
A wave of violent pogroms (persecutions). Citizens, police or armies would go into Jewish neighborhoods and harass and terrorize them.
Up until 1890, where did most immigrate from?
N & W Europe
What are the four conditions that contributed to a new wave of immigration?
1. Economic depression - no jobs
2. Persecution of Jews in Eastern Europe (pogroms)
3. Avoid draft into Russian Army
4. Cheap labor needed by Americans (RR expansion)
What was an immigrant like?
Rural peasants, farmers; lived in shacks or sm houses; mostly unskilled single men who were willing to work the worst jobs for the lowest pay. Usually did not join labor unions and some did not stay (birds of passage)
How many were usually processed per day at Ellis Island?
What was the record of immigrants processed in one day at Ellis Island?
What is NATIVISM?
Biased or prejudice against immigrants in favor of native WASPs (White Anglo Saxon Protestants)
What is Xenophobia?
Fear of foreigners
What happened on the west coast in 1882?
Chinese Exclusion Act
Who invented the traffic light?
Eric Morgan (black American) in 1923
What did Eric Morgan do after his invention of the traffic light?
He sold the rights to GE for $40,000
What did Eric Morgan invent?
The traffic light (1923) and the gas mask (1912)
What was one big invention that changed the make up of the city?
Who was one of the first photographers to use magnesium flash?
What was the Magic Lantern?
It showed/projected slides (Jacob Riis)
Why did Jacob Riis take photographs?
He wanted to expose the terrible conditions of the inner city slums
How did Jacob Riis expose the slums?
With photographs and a publication of "How the Other Half Lives" in 1890
By 1900, what percent of NYC was immigrant?
In 1900 there were how many horses which produced how much manure?
200,000; 24 lbs a day each; over 5 million lbs a day!
What were the four things cities needed?
Transportation & routes
Public Facilities (schools, hosp, libraries)
Sanitation(running water, street, garbage)
Water & energy systems
What percent of cities were run by big bosses by the turn of the 20th century?
How much did the $250,000 courthouse end up costing taxpayers?
$14 million with bribes and kickbacks (grafts)
What did the Progressives want to END?
Where did a lot of children work (and still do today in East Asia)?
By 1910, how many kids under 15 yoa worked in industrial jobs?
What was the problem with kids working in the coal mines?
Many accidents and many died from brown lung
What was the first national strike in US History?
The Great RR Strike of 1877
What caused the Great RR Strike?
Repeated pay cuts. Workers' wages were cut 10% and stockholders' profits rose 10%
What was the Great RR Strike called?
"The Great Uprising"
How many people were shot and killed during the Great Uprising in 1877?
40 people (in Pittsburgh)
What resulted from the Great RR Strike?
The violence frightened authorities and upper classes turned against the strikers.
*Workers realized they had little power as individuals and joined unions
What was the Knights of Labor?
A union which welcomed everyone, including women and blacks
Which union only allowed SKILLED workers?
AFL (American Federation of Labor)
What happened on May 1, 1886?
The Haymarket Affair. A Nationwide general strike in support of the 8 hr workday.
45,000 people paraded peacefully down Mich Ave.
SCABS were used to replace the workers
What happened on May 3, 1886, 2 days after the Nationwide general strike for 8 hr workdays?
The workers attacked the scabs outside the McCormick works and police opened fire, killing 4 and wounding 2 men
Who led the radicals in the Haymarket Affair?
What happened on May 4, 1886?
August Spies led the radicals to organize a rally in protest against police action (Haymkt Affair)
3,000 ppl went down to Haymkt Sq - most went home except for 300. Someone threw a bomb into the crowd & killed 7 ofcrs and injured others.
First time a bomb was used in domestic terrorism
8 men were tried and found guilty
What was the effect of the Haymarket Affair?
People turned away from the Knights of Labor & Radicals
Many skilled laborers joined AFL
How long did UNskilled laborers have to wait for improvement in working conditions?
Who was the father of the parks?
Frederick Law Olmsted
Who designed Central Park in NYC?
Frederick Law Olmstead
What was the result of the fire in Chicago on Oct 8, 1871?
300 residents were dead; 90,000 homeless and 17,450 buildings were destroyed. Damages $200 million
Chicago was rebuilt with modern architecture by the CHICAGO SCHOOL
Architect who said, "Form follows function"
Architect who created the open concept in houses.
Frank Lloyd Wright
Who invented elevators?
What were the 4 main challenges for farmers?
2. RR shipping rates increased
3. Rising crop prices
4. Wanted a silver standard
What was the Populist Movement or Peoples Party?
Alliance of farmers, laborers & reformers that came together to try to make changes
How were the strikes ended?
1. Armed police, det, and troops
3. Blacklisted leaders and strikers
What happened with the Homestead Steel Mill Strike in 1892?
Carnegie's workers threatened strike. He left Henry Clay Frick in charge who put put barbed wire fence to keep the workers out, and hired mercenaries at twice the pay the workers were getting. Fights broke out, Pinks lost.
What happened to Henry Clay Frick?
He was working at his desk and was shot twice in the neck by a Russian immigrant anarchist. He kept working while Drs removed the bullet. This turned public opinion against strikers & associated labor with anarchists.
What was launched in 1869 and by whom?
The National Women's Suffrage Association by Elizabeth Stanton & Susan B. Anthony to demand the right to vote for women.
What types of inventions opened up more jobs for women?
Typewriter, cash register, adding machine
Who was the first person with the idea that govt should create more jobs for people?
What happened to Jacob Coxey when he made a speech?
He was arrested for walking on the grass - put in jail and fined $5.