lifespan ch 1
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the perspective that development is lifelong, multidimensional, multidirectional, plastic, multidisciplinary, and contextual; involves growth, maintenance, and regulation and is constructed through biological, sociocultural, and individual factors working together
life span perspective
contextual influences on development
- -normative age graded influences
- -normative history graded influences
- -normative life events
influences that are similar for individuals in a particular age group
normative age graded influences
influences that are common to people of a particular generation because of historical circumstances
normative history graded influences
unusual occurrences that have a major impact on an individuals life
non-normative life events
the behavior patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a group that are passed on from generation to generation
a characteristic based on cultural heritage, nationality characteristics, race, religion, and language
refers to the grouping of people with occupational, educational, and economic characteristics
socioeconomic status (SES)
changes in a individuals physical nature
changes in an individuals thought, intelligence and language
changes in an individuals relationships with other people, emotions, and personality
the time from conception to birth. involves tremendous growth, from a single cell to an organism complete with brain and behavioral capabilities
from birth to 24 months. extreme dependency on adults. many psychological activities are just beginning
end of infancy to about 6. called the "preschool" years. young children learn to become more self sufficient and to care for themselves
from about 6-11 years. elementary school years. fundamental skills of reading, writing, and arithmetic are mastered.
middle and late childhood
childhood to early adulthood from about 10-21. rapid physical changes-dramatic gains in height and weight. puberty! more time spent outside of family
begins in the early 20's and lasts through the 30's. a time of establishing personal, economic independence, and career development.
about 40 years of age to about 60. it is a time of expanding personal and social involvement and responsibility, of assisting the next generation. maintaining satisfaction in a career
60's or 70's and lasts until death. time of life review, retirement, and adjustment to new social roles
trend of age and happiness
in the united states happiness increases with age. Older people are more content with what they have in their lives, have better relationships with the people who matter and are less pressured to achieve.
conceptions of age
- -chronological age
- -social age
the number of years that have elapsed since birth
is an individuals adaptive capacities compared with those of other individuals of the same chronological age
refers to social roles and expectations related to a persons age
age related to physical health
the debate about whether development is primarily influenced by nature or nurture. The nature proponents claim bio inher. is the most imporant influence and the nurture influe are the most important
involves the degree to which we become older renditions of our early experience or whether we develop into someone different from who we were at an earlier point in development
stability change issue
focuses on the extent to which development involves gradual, cumulative, change or distinct ages
oral stage, anal stage, phallic stage, latency stage, genital stage
infants pleasure centers the mouth. birth-1 and 1/2 years
child's pleasure focuses on the anus. 1-1.5 - 3 years
childs pleasure focuses on the genitals. 3-6 years
child represses sexual interest and develops social and intellectual skills. 6 years to puberty
a time of sexual reawakening; source of sexual pleasure becomes someone outside the family. puberty onward
8 psycho social stages of development by Erik Erikson
- -trust vs mistrust
- -autonomy versus shame and doubt
- -initiative versus guilt
- -industry versus inferiority
- -identity versus confusion
- -intimacy versus isolation
- -generativity vs stagnation
- -integrity vs despair
second psychosocial stage. late infancy to toddlerhood (1-3 years). after gaining trust in their caregivers, infants begin to discover that their behavior is their own. they start to assert their sense of independence and autonomy. if infants and toddlers are restrained too much or punished too harshly they are likely to develop a sense of shame and doubt.
autonomy vs shame
first psychosocial stage. trust in infancy sets the stage for lifelong expectations
trust versus mistrust
third stage of guilt. occurs in preschool years. children encounter the widening social world, they face new challenges that require responsible behavior.
initiative vs guilt
4th stage. approx elementary school years. children now need to direct their energy toward mastering knowledge and intellectual skills. Child may develop a sense of inferiority
industry vs inferiority
5th developmental stage. if adolescents explore roles in a healthy manner and arrive at a positive path to follow in life, then they achieve a positive identity; if not, then identity confusion reigns
identity vs identity confusion.
6th stage. early adulthood years. individuals face the developmental task of forming intimate relationships. if young adults form healthy friendships and an intimate relationship with another, intimacy will be achieved. if not isolation will result.
intimacy vs isolation
7th stage occurs during middle adulthood. primarily a concern for helping the younger generation to develop and lead useful lives. the feeling of having done nothing to help the next generation is stagnation
generativity vs stagnation
8th stage occurs in late adulthood. a person reflects on the past. if the life was well spent integrity will be achieved
integrity vs despair
Piagets 4 stages of cognitive development
- -sensorimotor stage
- -preoperational stage
- -concrete operational stage
- -formal operational stage
birth to 2 years of age. in this stage, infants construct an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences with physical, motoric actions
lasts from about 2 to 7 years of age. is piagets second stage. children begin to go beyond simply connecting sensory information with physical action and represent the world with words. can perform concrete operations (think of the water test)
pre operational stage
from 7 to 11 years is the 3rd stage. children can perform operations that involve objects and can reason logically when the reasoning can be applied to specific or concrete examples. cant quite do abstract thinking, only basic internalized mental actions
concrete operational stage
11-15 and is the 4th stage. individuals move beyond concrete experiences and think in abstract and more logical terms.
formal operational stage
a sociocultural cognitive theory that emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development
Lev Vygotsky's theory
skinners key to development
development is behavior, not thoughts and feelings
the view emphasizing behavior, environment, and cognition as the key factors in development.
social learning theory.
learning that occurs through observing what other do
imitation or modeling
a persons belief in their ability to complete a task, determines their initiation in the task and their persistence
4 parts of self efficacy
- -performance accomplishments
- -verbal persuasion from others
- -physiological arousal
theory that focuses on five environmental systems: microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem
Brofenbrenners ecological theory
the setting in which the individual lives
involves relations between microsystems or connections between contexts
consists of links between a social setting in which the individual does not have an active role and the individual's immediate context
involves culture in where individuals live
consists of the patterning of environmental events and transitions over the life course
stresses that behavior is strongly influenced by biology, is tied to evolution, and is characterized by critical or sensitive periods.
an orientation that does not follow any one theoretical approach, but rather selects from each theory whatever is considered the best in it
eclectic theoretical orientation
in this view, natural selection favors behaviors that increase reproductive success, the ability to pass your genes to the next generation.
units of hereditary information composed of DNA. Genes direct cells to reproduce themselves and manufacture the proteins that maintain life
humans have far more _____ than they have _____ so there cannot be a 1:1 correspondence between genes and proteins
cellular reproduction in which the cells nucleus duplicates itself with two new cells being formed.
a specialized form of cell division that occurs to form eggs and sperm
a single cell formed through fertilization
a persons genetic heritage; the actual genetic material
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