lifespan ch 1

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lifespan ch 1
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2013-09-22 18:00:47
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lifespan psychology
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  1. the perspective that development is lifelong, multidimensional, multidirectional, plastic, multidisciplinary, and contextual; involves growth, maintenance, and regulation and is constructed through biological, sociocultural, and individual factors working together
    life span perspective
  2. contextual influences on development
    • -normative age graded influences
    • -normative history graded influences
    • -normative life events
  3. influences that are similar for individuals in a particular age group
    normative age graded influences
  4. influences that are common to people of a particular generation because of historical circumstances
    normative history graded influences
  5. unusual occurrences that have a major impact on an individuals life
    non-normative life events
  6. the behavior patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a group that are passed on from generation to generation
    culture
  7. a characteristic based on cultural heritage, nationality characteristics, race, religion, and language
    ethnicity
  8. refers to the grouping of people with occupational, educational, and economic characteristics
    socioeconomic status (SES)
  9. changes in a individuals physical nature
    biological processes
  10. changes in an individuals thought, intelligence and language
    cognitive processes
  11. changes in an individuals relationships with other people, emotions, and personality
    socioemotional processes
  12. the time from conception to birth. involves tremendous growth, from a single cell to an organism complete with brain and behavioral capabilities
    prenatal period
  13. from birth to 24 months. extreme dependency on adults. many psychological activities are just beginning
    infancy
  14. end of infancy to about 6. called the "preschool" years. young children learn to become more self sufficient and to care for themselves
    early childhood
  15. from about 6-11 years. elementary school years. fundamental skills of reading, writing, and arithmetic are mastered.
    middle and late childhood
  16. childhood to early adulthood from about 10-21. rapid physical changes-dramatic gains in height and weight. puberty! more time spent outside of family
    adolescence
  17. begins in the early 20's and lasts through the 30's. a time of establishing personal, economic independence, and career development.
    early adulthood
  18. about 40 years of age to about 60. it is a time of expanding personal and social involvement and responsibility, of assisting the next generation. maintaining satisfaction in a career
    middle adulthood
  19. 60's or 70's and lasts until death. time of life review, retirement, and adjustment to new social roles
    late adulthood
  20. trend of age and happiness
    in the united states happiness increases with age. Older people are more content with what they have in their lives, have better relationships with the people who matter and are less pressured to achieve.
  21. conceptions of age
    • -chronological age
    • -psychological
    • -social age
  22. the number of years that have elapsed since birth
    chronological age
  23. is an individuals adaptive capacities compared with those of other individuals of the same chronological age
    psychological age
  24. refers to social roles and expectations related to a persons age
    social age
  25. age related to physical health
    biological age
  26. the debate about whether development is primarily influenced by nature or nurture. The nature proponents claim bio inher. is the most imporant influence and the nurture influe are the most important
    nature-nurture issue
  27. involves the degree to which we become older renditions of our early experience or whether we develop into someone different from who we were at an earlier point in development
    stability change issue
  28. focuses on the extent to which development involves gradual, cumulative, change or distinct ages
    continuity-discontinuity issue
  29. psychosexual stages
    oral stage, anal stage, phallic stage, latency stage, genital stage
  30. infants pleasure centers the mouth. birth-1 and 1/2 years
    oral stage
  31. child's pleasure focuses on the anus. 1-1.5 - 3 years
    anal stage
  32. childs pleasure focuses on the genitals. 3-6 years
    phallic stage
  33. child represses sexual interest and develops social and intellectual skills. 6 years to puberty
    latency stage
  34. a time of sexual reawakening; source of sexual pleasure becomes someone outside the family. puberty onward
    genital stage
  35. 8 psycho social stages of development by Erik Erikson
    • -trust vs mistrust
    • -autonomy versus shame and doubt
    • -initiative versus guilt
    • -industry versus inferiority
    • -identity versus confusion
    • -intimacy versus isolation
    • -generativity vs stagnation
    • -integrity vs despair
  36. second psychosocial stage. late infancy to toddlerhood (1-3 years). after gaining trust in their caregivers, infants begin to discover that their behavior is their own. they start to assert their sense of independence and autonomy. if infants and toddlers are restrained too much or punished too harshly they are likely to develop a sense of shame and doubt.
    autonomy vs shame
  37. first psychosocial stage. trust in infancy sets the stage for lifelong expectations
    trust versus mistrust
  38. third stage of guilt. occurs in preschool years. children encounter the widening social world, they face new challenges that require responsible behavior.
    initiative vs guilt
  39. 4th stage. approx elementary school years. children now need to direct their energy toward mastering knowledge and intellectual skills. Child may develop a sense of inferiority
    industry vs inferiority
  40. 5th developmental stage. if adolescents explore roles in a healthy manner and arrive at a positive path to follow in life, then they achieve a positive identity; if not, then identity confusion reigns
    identity vs identity confusion.
  41. 6th stage. early adulthood years. individuals face the developmental task of forming intimate relationships. if young adults form healthy friendships and an intimate relationship with another, intimacy will be achieved. if not isolation will result.
    intimacy vs isolation
  42. 7th stage occurs during middle adulthood. primarily a concern for helping the younger generation to develop and lead useful lives. the feeling of having done nothing to help the next generation is stagnation
    generativity vs stagnation
  43. 8th stage occurs in late adulthood. a person reflects on the past. if the life was well spent integrity will be achieved
    integrity vs despair
  44. Piagets 4 stages of cognitive development
    • -sensorimotor stage
    • -preoperational stage
    • -concrete operational stage
    • -formal operational stage
  45. birth to 2 years of age. in this stage, infants construct an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences with physical, motoric actions
    sensorimotor
  46. lasts from about 2 to 7 years of age. is piagets second stage. children begin to go beyond simply connecting sensory information with physical action and represent the world with words. can perform concrete operations (think of the water test)
    pre operational stage
  47. from 7 to 11 years is the 3rd stage. children can perform operations that involve objects and can reason logically when the reasoning can be applied to specific or concrete examples. cant quite do abstract thinking, only basic internalized mental actions
    concrete operational stage
  48. 11-15 and is the 4th stage. individuals move beyond concrete experiences and think in abstract and more logical terms.
    formal operational stage
  49. a sociocultural cognitive theory that emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development
    Lev Vygotsky's theory
  50. skinners key to development
    development is behavior, not thoughts and feelings
  51. the view emphasizing behavior, environment, and cognition as the key factors in development.
    social learning theory.
  52. learning that occurs through observing what other do
    imitation or modeling
  53. a persons belief in their ability to complete a task, determines their initiation in the task and their persistence
    self efficacy
  54. 4 parts of self efficacy
    • -performance accomplishments
    • -verbal persuasion from others
    • -modeling
    • -physiological arousal
  55. theory that focuses on five environmental systems: microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem
    Brofenbrenners ecological theory
  56. the setting in which the individual lives
    microsystem
  57. involves relations between microsystems or connections between contexts
    mesosystem
  58. consists of links between a social setting in which the individual does not have an active role and the individual's immediate context
    exosystem
  59. involves culture in where individuals live
    macrosystem
  60. consists of the patterning of environmental events and transitions over the life course
    chronosystem
  61. stresses that behavior is strongly influenced by biology, is tied to evolution, and is characterized by critical or sensitive periods.
    ethological theory
  62. an orientation that does not follow any one theoretical approach, but rather selects from each theory whatever is considered the best in it
    eclectic theoretical orientation
  63. in this view, natural selection favors behaviors that increase reproductive success, the ability to pass your genes to the next generation.
    evolutionary psychology
  64. units of hereditary information composed of DNA. Genes direct cells to reproduce themselves and manufacture the proteins that maintain life
    genes
  65. humans have far more _____ than they have _____ so there cannot be a 1:1 correspondence between genes and proteins
    proteins; genes
  66. cellular reproduction in which the cells nucleus duplicates itself with two new cells being formed.
    mitosis
  67. a specialized form of cell division that occurs to form eggs and sperm
    meiosis
  68. a single cell formed through fertilization
    zygote
  69. a persons genetic heritage; the actual genetic material
    genotype

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