Chapter 20.txt

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Chapter 20.txt
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  1. 1. *Describe the location of the heart and associated structures.
  2. 2. A mass of tissue that extends from the sternum to the vertebral column between the lungs is
    called:
  3. 3. The heart pumps about _____liters a minute when the body is at rest.
  4. 4. Describe the position of the apex of the heart.
  5. 5. The heart is suspended by ____ ; the heart is supported by the:
  6. 6. External compression on the chest can be used to force blood out of the heart and into the circulation because the heart lies between two rigid structures:
  7. 7. The procedure of cardiac compression and ventilation is called:
  8. 8. What proceedure can be used to save lives when the heart stops beating?
  9. 9. *A triple-layered sac that surrounds and protects the heart is called:
  10. 10. Which layer of the pericardium provides protection, prevents overstretching, and anchors the heart in the mediastinum?
    11. Which layer of the pericardium forms a double layer around the heart?
  11. 12. Which layer of the pericardium is fused to the heart?
  12. 13. What is the space that the heart moves in called?
  13. 14. What is the function of pericardial fluid?
  14. 15. A life threatening build up of pericardial fluid or blood in the pericardial cavity is called:
  15. 16. *The wall of the heart consists of three layers:
  16. 17. The layer of the heart that that gives the heart its slippery texture is called:
  17. 18. The layer of the heart that is formed of cardiac muscle tissue is called:
  18. 19. A thin layer of connective tissue that forms a smooth lining for the chambers of the heart is:
  19. 20. Auricles are part of the structure of the ______ of the heart.
  20. 21. *Grooves on the surface of the heart that mark the boundaries between the chambers of the heart are called:
  21. 22. Which sulcus marks the boundary between the atria and the ventricles?
  22. 23. Which sulcus marks the boundary between the left and right anterior ventricles?
  23. 24. *Blood flows into the right atrium through three veins:
  24. 25. *Blood flows into the left atrium through four veins:
  25. 26. The only chamber of the heart with pectinate muscles is the:
  26. 27. The fossa ovalis is the remnant of the____ which connected the right and left atria before birth.
  27. 28. Blood passes from the right atria into the right ventricle through a valve called the:
  28. 29. The ventricles of the heart contain ridges formed by raised bundles of cardiac muscle fibers called:
  29. 30. The tricuspid valve is connected to cone-shaped papillary muscles by:
  30. 31. The right and left ventricle are separated by the:
  31. 32. Blood passes into the right ventricle through the:
  32. 32. *Most of the base of the heart is formed by the:
  33. 33. The left atrium receives blood from the lungs four veins:
  34. 34. *Blood passes from the left atrium into the left ventricle through the ____ valve.
  35. 35. Which heart structure forms the apex of the heart?
  36. 36. Blood passes out of the left ventricle through the ____ valve.
  37. 3. During fetal life a temporary blood vessel called the_______ shunted blood from the the pulmonary trunk into the aorta.
  38. 37. The ductus arteriosus normally closes after birth but a remnant is called the:
  39. 38. The largest artery of the body is the:
  40. 39. *The right ventricle is separated from the left ventricle by the:
  41. 40. Which chamber of the heart has the thickest wall?
  42. 41. *Four dense connective tissue rings, the conus tendon, and the left and right fibrous trigone
    form the:
  43. 42. *What structure of the heart supports the valves, acts as a point of insertion for cardiac muscle bundles, prevents overstretching of the valves, and acts as an electrical insulator?
  44. 43. * four dense connective tissue rings, the conus tendon, and the left and right fibrous trigone
  45. 44. An abnormal sound consisting of a gurgling noise that is heard with the normal heart sounds is called:
  46. 45. A stenosis is caused by the ______ of a valve; an insufficiency is caused by:
  47. 46. *The function of each of the four heart valves is to prevent:
  48. 47. *The tricuspid and bicuspid valves are called the:
  49. 48. *The two valves that allow the blood to enter the arteries and prevents the back flow of blood into the ventricles are the:
  50. 49. The semilunar valves are open when the ventricles are:
  51. 50.Blood enters the ventricle when the ventricular pressure is:
  52. 51. *The left side of the heart pumps oxygenated blood into the:
  53. 52. *The right side of the heart pumps deoxygenated blood into the:
  54. 53. *The blood flows from the left atrium through the ____valve to the left ventricle.
  55. 54. *The blood flows from the right atrium through the ________valve to the right ventricle.
  56. 55. *The________veins are the only veins that carry oxygenated blood.
  57. 56. The pulmonary veins are the only veins that carry:
  58. 57. *The pulmonary trunk, the right ventricle, and right atrium are part of the _____circulation.
  59. 58. A narrowing of a heart valve opening that restricts blood flow is a:
  60. 59. The failure of a heart valve to close completely is called:
  61. 60. When one or both cusps of the mitral valve protrude into the left atrium during ventrical contraction it is called:
  62. 61. *Oxygenated blood is delivered to the heart by the:
  63. 62. Which blood vessel delivers oxygenated blood to the left atrium and left ventricle?
  64. 63. *Deoxygenated blood collects in coronary veins and drains into the:
  65. 64. What connections between coronary arteries provide alternate routes for blood in the heart?
  66. 65. A condition of reduced blood flow in the coronary arteries that reduces blood flow to the myocardium:
  67. 66. A severe pain from myocardia ishemia described as a tightness or squeezing of the chest:
  68. 67. A heart attack that causes the death of heart tissue due to a complete obstruction of blood flow in a coronary artery:
  69. 68. How are cardiac muscle fibers in the heart arranged?
  70. 69. *The cardiac muscle fibers in the functional networks are connected to each other by:
  71. 70. Muscle action potentials to spread from fiber to fiber across:
  72. 71. How is cardiac muscle is similar to skeletal muscle?
  73. 72. What evidence indicates that there is significant replacements of heart cells by stem cell-like heart cells?
  74. 73. *The conduction system ensures that all four cardiac chambers contract:
  75. 74. *What fibers that set the rhythm for the entire heart and form a conduction system to propagate the action potential throughout the heart muscle?
  76. 75. Cardiac excitation begins in the ____in the right atrial wall.
  77. 76. The action potential from the SA node reaches the_____and spreads down the Atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His) throughout the ventricles causing both ventricles to contract as a unit.
    77. Which component of the conduction system provides the only electrical connection between the atria and ventricles?
  78. 78. When the heart rate drops to 40 beats/min from damage to the SA and AV nodes the rate can be corrected by the implant of:
  79. 79. The normal resting heart beat rate is about ____ beats per minute.
  80. 80. Normal heartbeat rhythm can be restored to a damaged heart by implanting a:
  81. 81.*The long refractory period in cardiac muscle fibers prevents:
  82. 82. *Compared to skeletal muscle fibers the duration of contraction of a cardiac muscle is:

    83. The working atrial and ventricular cardiac muscle fibers are called:
  83. 84. The plateau of depolarization is due to the slower opening of:
  84. 85. The period when the muscles are contracting and can not be stimulated by a second stimulus is called:
  85. 86. *The action potential propagation through the heart generates electrical currents that can be measure at the surface of the body using:
  86. 87. *A recording of the electrical activity that initiates each heartbeat is called:
  87. 88. There are three waves that appear with each heartbeat:
  88. 89. The P-Q interval increase can indicate:
  89. 90. An asynchronous contractions of the ventricular contractile fibers is called:
  90. 91. *The contraction phase is called ____; the relaxation phase is called _____
  91. 92. Where in the conduction system of the heart do action potentials propagate slowest?
  92. 93. Depolarization of atrial contractile fibers produces the:
  93. 94. Repolarization of the ventricular fibers begins at the apex and spreads which causes the:
  94. 95. *All the events associated with one heartbeat are called the:
  95. 96. *Contraction of the heart is called___ ; relaxation of the heart is called:
  96. 97. *During atrial systole the atria are _____ and the ventricles are :
  97. 98. *During ventricular systole the ventricles are ____ and the atria are ______
  98. 99. What occurs When ventricular pressure exceeds aortic pressure?
  99. 100. The blood left in a ventricle at the end of systole is called:
  100. 101. The blood in the ventricles at the end of diastole is called the
  101. 102. During ventricular diastole, ventricular pressure drops below atrial pressure and:
  102. 103. *The act of listening to heart sounds within the body is called:
  103. 104. The first sound is a lubb sound created by blood turbulence associated with the closure of:
  104. 105. The second sound is a dupp sound caused by blood turbulence associated with closure of:
  105. 106. An abnormal sound consisting of clicking, rushing, or gurging noise heard before, between, or after normal heart sounds is called:
  106. 107. *The volume of blood ejected from the left ventricle into the aorta per minute is the:
  107. 108. Normal cardiac output is equal to the which volume of the body’s blood per minute?
  108. 109. The more the heart is filled during diastole the greater the force of contraction during systole, a relationship known as the:
    110. What is the effect of excercise on stroke volume?
  109. 111. What can be the long-term effect of an increase in afterload?
  110. 112. What effect do positive inotropic agents have on myocardial contractility?
  111. 113. What would happen to the pumping of the heart during congestive heart failure?
  112. 114. In congestive heart failure the heart is overstretched and contracts less forcefully creating a:
    _____ that leads to even lower pumping capability.
  113. 115. *The most important factors that regulate heart rate are:
  114. 116. If the sinoatrial node controlled contraction there would be a constant heart rate of:
  115. 117. *The most important factors that regulate heart rate are the ____ and hormones of the
  116. 118. *What structure in the medulla oblongata controls both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves that control heart rate?
  117. 119. Which division of the nervous system controls heart rate?
  118. 120. *What is the effect of epinephrine from the sympathetic nerves on the heart rate?
  119. 121. *What is the effect of acetylcholine from the parasympathetic nerves on the heart rate?
  120. 122. Which of these ions elevated levels would decrease heart rate?
  121. 123. An elevated resting heartrate is called _____; A heart rate below 50 beats/min in a fit person is called:
  122. 124. *Cardiac output equals stroke volume multiplied by:
  123. 125. “Increased preload increases the force of contraction” is known as:
  124. 126. In a normal heart increased preload and increased contractility leads to:
  125. 127. in a diseased heart increased preload,increased contractility, and high blood pressure lead to
    128. How can cardiovascular fitness can be improved at any age?
  126. 129. *The replacement of a severely damaged heart with a normal heart is called:
  127. 130. Which patients are candidates for cardiac transplantation?
  128. 131. *The heart begins its development from a group of mesodermal cells called:
  129. 132. When does the primitive heart begin to contract?
  130. 133. Why is the heart one of the first systems to develop?
  131. 134. A 40 ml polylurethane ballon mounted on a catheter is inserted into an artery in the groin and pushed forward to the thoracic aorta. The balloon is rapidly inflated and deflated to push blood into the coronary artery and sucking blood out of the left ventricle
  132. 135. A mechanical pump that helps a weakended ventricle to pump blood throughout the body so that the heart does not have to work as hard.
  133. 136. A large piece of the patient’s own skeletal muscle is partially freed up and wrapped arouned the heart. An implanted pacemaker stimulates the muscle to contract.
  134. *137. *On the 28th day after fertilization the tubualar heart of the embryo is partioned into:
  135. 138. An opening between the right and left atria called the ______allows most blood to passes directly into the left atria in the embryo.
  136. 139. *Which factor plays a key role in the development of atherosclerotic plaques?
  137. 140. The number one risk factor in all CAD diseases is:
  138. 141. Which lipoprotein helps to reduce cholesterol in the blood?
  139. 142 *Which of the therapys for CAD are the least intrusive?
  140. 143. *What do Coarctation of the aorta, Patent ductus arteriosus, Septal defect, and Tetraology of Fallot have in commmon?
  141. 144. What conditions cause cyanosis, known as blue-baby syndrome?
  142. 145. A rapid but regular heart rate (160- 200 b/m) that originates in the atria is
    called:
  143. 146. An arrhythmia that occurs when the electrical pathways between the atria and ventricles are blocked, slowing the transmission of nerve impulses resulting in slow rate and “dropped” beats.
  144. 147. A rapid regular atrial contractions (240-360 b/m) accompanied by an atrioventricular block.
  145. 148. A common arrhythmia in older adults in which contration of the atria is asynchronous so that atrial pumping ceases, resulting in blood clots that causes strokes in brain.
  146. 149. An arrhythmia that originates in the ventricles and causes the ventricles to beat too fast (120 b/m) that is always associated with a recent myocardial infarction.
  147. 150. The most deadly arrhytmia where the ventricles quiver rapidly rather than contract. Ventricle pumping stops and circulatory failure and death occur without medical intervention. CPR and electrical shock from a defibrillator can often stop this arrhythmia.

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