History unit 2

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History unit 2
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  1. mercantilism
    economic doctrine based on the theory that a nation benefits by accumulating monetary reserves through a positive balance of trade
  2. Sugar Act
    • Revenue Act of 1764
    • purpose was to raise money
  3. Quartering Act
    • 1765
    • British troops could be quartered in taverns, barns, inns, uninhabited houses
    • colonial assemblies had to pay rent
  4. Stamp Act
    • 1765
    • placed a tax on every kind of legal paper
  5. virtual representation
    Parliament represents the good of the Englishmen as a whole
  6. direct representation
    each representative represents a specific region
  7. Sons of Liberty
    • upper class
    • organized mobs-intimidation
  8. Stamp Act Congress
    • 1765
    • 9 colonies
    • "the first spontaneous colonial movement"
  9. Proclamation Act
    • 1763
    • prohibits settlements in the west
    • people who already settled there had to move back east
  10. Declaratory Act
    • 1766
    • British Parliament asserting its authority to make laws binding the colonists “in all cases whatsoever” including the right to tax
  11. Charles Townshend
    British chancellor of the Exchequer whose measures for the taxation of the British-American colonies intensified the hostilities that eventually led to the American Rev
  12. Townshend Acts
    • 1767
    • Taxes on glass, paint, oil, lead, paper, and tea
  13. Boston Massacre
    • 3-5-70
    • taunting of British troops
    • unauthorized firing kills five - Crispus Attucks
  14. non-importation agreements
    • voluntary agreements of all the colonies to not buy imported goods
    • south didn't follow
  15. George III
    • 22 after the F and I war
    • insane at times
    • determined to rule
  16. Tea Act
    • 1773
    • designed to rescue the British East India Company from Banlruptcy
  17. committees of correspondence
    • 12 colonies
    • purpose to keep the lines of communication opened at all times
  18. Samuel Adams
    • father of the American Rev
    • initiates the idea of Committees of Correspondence
  19. Coercive Acts/Intolerable Acts
    • 1774
    • designed to punish Boston until the tea was paid for
  20. Quebec Act
    • boundaries of Quebec were extended south to the Ohio and west to the Mississippi rivers
    • recognition was also given to the Roman Catholic Church
    •  French civil code was officially recognized for use in Quebec
  21. Boston Port Act
    closed the port of Boston
  22. Massachusetts Government Act
    governor and council appointed by the king
  23. First Continental Congress
    • 1774
    • The colonies presented there were united in a determination to show a combined authority to Great Britain, but their aims were not uniform at all
  24. John Adams
    He was the lawyer who defended the British soldiers who were accused of murdering Crispus Attucks at the Boston Massacre
  25. Administration of Justice Act
    • part of intolerable acts
    • allowed the governor to transfer trials to England or Nova Scotia if an impartial jury could not be found in Massachusetts
  26. The Association
    • Sons of Liberty
    • which was patterned after the Virginia Association and others that followed. This was a pact for nonimportation of English goods, to establish mechanisms throughout the colonies to enforce and regulate the resistance to Great Britain, and to keep the channels of communication open
  27. Hessians
    German soldiers
  28. Lexington and Concord
    began the American Rev
  29. Patriots
    • colonial supporters
    • backcountry people
    • merchants, planters, laborers, artisans, small farmers
  30. Loyalists/tories
    British office holders, merchants that fit well into the system, lawyer that had British client, Anglican ministers, slaves, recent British immigrants
  31. Second Continental Congress
    • 5-10-75
    • Washington becomes commander in chief
    • attack Canada and treaty with Indians-both possible 13th colony
    • Olive Branch Petition
  32. George Washington
    • The tall, dignified Virginia planter had never risen above the rank of a colonel in the militia and his largest command had numbered only 1200 men
    • He radiated patience, courage, self-discipline, and a sense of justice; he was a great moral force rather than a great military mind—he insisted on serving without pay, though he kept a careful expense account amounting to more than $100,000
    • Although he lost more pitched battles than he won, the distinguished Virginian was gifted with outstanding powers of leadership and immense strength of character
  33. Ticonderoga and Crown Point
    two British forts Americans captured
  34. Battle of Bunker Hill
    June 17, 1775, mostly on and around Breed's Hill, during the Siege of Boston early in the American Revolutionary War
  35. Benedict Arnold
    general during the American Revolutionary War who originally fought for the American Continental Army but defected to the British Army
  36. Thomas Paine
    • Common Sense
    • crack brain zealot for democracy
  37. Common Sense
    book by Thomas Paine
  38. rights of Englishmen
    claim all the rights and protections of English citizenship
  39. Paxton Boys
    • 1764
    • no protection during Pontiac's Rebellion
    • massacre of peaceful Indians
  40. Pontiac's Rebellion
    • 1763
    •  war by a loose confederation of elements of Native American tribes who were dissatisfied with British postwar policies in the Great Lakes region after the British victory in the French and Indian War
  41. Regulators
    mob in North Carolina
  42. power of the purse
    ability of one group to manipulate and control the actions of another group by withholding funding
  43. writs of assistance
    court orders that authorized customs officers to conduct general (non-specific) searches of premises for contraband
  44. internal taxation
    general taxes imposed on items and lands within a nation or colony. These are  taxes on goods that most people need or use, and tended to affect most free  people in the nation
  45. external taxation
    External taxes are taxes more oriented toward tariffs and export/import taxes  levied against goods being shipping in (and out) of the nation
  46. protective tariff
    A duty imposed on imports to raise their price, making them less attractive to consumers
  47. revenue tariff
    Pays interest on debts and funds the government
  48. natural (fundamental) rights
    • Locke
    • life, liberty, pursuit of happiness
  49. Social Contract Theory
    earliest history man lived in a "state of nature." No government existed
  50. Admiralty Courts
    responsible for hearing civil and criminal cases originating on the high seas
  51. consent of the governed
    A condition urged by many as a requirement for legitimate government : that the authority of a government should depend on the people
  52. circular letter
    statement written by Samuel Adams and passed by the Massachusetts House of Representatives in February 1768
  53. Gaspee Affair
    HMS Gaspée, a British customs schooner that had been enforcing unpopular trade regulations, ran aground in shallow water on June 9, 1772, near what is now known as Gaspee Point in the city of Warwick, Rhode Island, while chasing the packet boat Hannah. A group of men led by Abraham Whipple and John Brown attacked, boarded, looted, and torched the ship
  54. William Howe
    British army officer who rose to become Commander-in-Chief of British forces during the American War of Independence
  55. Declaration of Independence
    Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, which announced that the 13 American colonies, then at war with Great Britain, regarded themselves as independent states, and no longer a part of the British Empire
  56. General Burgoyne
    • British army officer, politician and dramatist
    • surrenders 6000 men in 2nd Battle of Freeman's Farm
  57. Baron von Steuben
    • credited with being one of the fathers of the Continental Army in teaching them the essentials of military drills, tactics, and disciplines
    • Prussian-born military officer who served as inspector general and Major General of the Continental Army
  58. Battles of Trenton and Princeton
    • at Trenton, the Americans took prisoners, arms and supplies but quickly withdrew after winning the Battle of Princeton
    • America won both
  59. Battle of Saratoga
    • turning point of the war
    • France formally announced its aid to America
  60. Benjamin Franklin
    • Albany Congress
    • founding father of America
  61. Nathaniel Greene
    major general of the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War, known for his successful command in the Southern Campaign, forcing British general Charles Cornwallis to abandon the Carolinas and head for Virginia
  62. General Cornwallis
    remembered as one of the leading British generals in the American War of Independence. His surrender in 1781 to a combined American and French force at the Siege of Yorktown ended significant hostilities in North America
  63. George Rogers Clark
    • soldier from Virginia and the highest ranking American military officer on the northwestern frontier during the American Revolutionary War. He served as leader of the Kentucky militia throughout much of the war
    • Conqueror of the old northwest
  64. John Paul Jones
    • Scottish sailor and the United States' first well-known naval fighter in the American Revolution
    • "Father of the United States Navy"
  65. Admiral de Grasse
    French admiral. He is best known for his command of the French fleet at the Battle of the Chesapeake, which led directly to the British surrender at Yorktown.
  66. Yorktown
    1781, was a decisive victory by a combined force of American Continental Army led by General George Washington and French Army troops led by the Comte de Rochambeau over a British Army commanded by British lord and Lieutenant General Lord Cornwallis
  67. John Jay
    American statesman, Patriot, diplomat, a Founding Father of the United States, signer of the Treaty of Paris, and the first Chief Justice of the United States
  68. Treaty of Paris
    • 1783
    • ended the American Revolutionary War between Great Britain on one side and the United States of America and its allies on the other
  69. Lafayette
    French aristocrat and military officer, was a general in the American Revolutionary War
  70. entail
    to restrict (property) by limiting the inheritance to the owner's lineal descendants or to a particular class thereof
  71. primogeniture
    right, by law or custom, of the firstborn son to inherit the family estate, in preference to siblings
  72. Articles of Confederation
    agreement among the 13 founding states that established the United States of America as a confederation of sovereign states and served as its first constitution
  73. Land Ordinance
    • 1785
    • foundations of land policy
    • raise money through the sale of land in the largely unmapped territory west of the original states
  74. Shay's Rebellion
    armed uprising that took place in central and western Massachusetts in 1786 and 1787
  75. Northwest Ordinance
    • 1787
    • provided a method for admitting   new states to the Union from the territory, and listed a bill of rights guaranteed   in the territory
  76. township system
    six miles square divided into 36 sections that are 1 mile square
  77. Annapolis Convention
    1786 at Annapolis, Maryland, of 12 delegates from five states (New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Virginia) that unanimously called for a constitutional convention.
  78. Alexander Hamilton
    Alexander Hamilton was a Founding Father of the United States, chief of staff to General Washington, one of the most influential interpreters and promoters of the Constitution, the founder of the nation's financial system, and the founder of the first American political party
  79. James Madison
    Father of the constitution
  80. Virginia Plan
    • large state plan
    • bicameral-2 house legislature
  81. New Jersey Plan
    • small state plan
    • small states control the gov't
    • unicameral-each state has an equal vote
  82. Great Compromise
    • Connecticut Compromise
    • Roger Sherman
    • bicameral legislature
    • money bills must begin in the House
  83. Three-fifths Compromise
    • a slave counts as three-fifths of a person
    • required for Southern support
  84. Federalists
    • first American political party
    • originally those forces in favor of the ratification of the Constitution
  85. Anti-federalists
    movement that opposed the creation of a stronger U.S. federal government and which later opposed the ratification of the Constitution of 1787
  86. The Federalist
    Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay promoting the ratification of the United States Constitution
  87. Thomas Hobbes
    men in the state of nature are naturally bad
  88. John Locke
    believed in certain natural rights of men which limited the power of government since they could not be taken away
  89. salutary neglect
    unofficial and long-lasting 17th- & 18th-century British policy of avoiding strict enforcement of parliamentary laws, meant to keep the American colonies obedient to England
  90. sovereignty
    independent authority over a geographic area, such as a territory
  91. federal system
    central government with specific powers over a country or nation
  92. confederal system
    • permanent union of political units for common action in relation to other units
    • system of government that nations or states agree to join together under a central government
  93. unitary system
    the central government possesses much authority and decision-making power. Local governing bodies simply serve as administrative arms of the central government.
  94. enumerated (delegated) powers
    powers specifically delegated to the Congress by the US Constitution
  95. reserved powers
    powers given to the states and not the federal government by the United States Constitution
  96. concurrent powers
    powers in nations with a federal system of government that are shared by both the State and the federal government
  97. John Hancock
    John Hancock was a merchant, statesman, and prominent Patriot of the American Revolution. He served as president of the Second Continental Congress and was the first and third Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. He is remembered for his large and stylish signature on the United States Declaration of Independence
  98. countryside in arms
    farmers all fighting
  99. tactical victory
    mission within the operational area which aims to complete the goals of the assigned mission or task
  100. moral victory
    when a person, team, army or other group loses a confrontation, and yet achieves some other moral gain
  101. Conciliatory Proposition
    resolution passed by the British Parliament in an attempt to reach a peaceful settlement with the Thirteen Colonies immediately prior to the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War.
  102. Declaration of Causes
    to Britain that says America only wants to take up arms to gain some freedom, not to separate from Britain
  103. Olive Branch petition
    • 7-8-75
    • wants to work with Britain
    • George refuses, declares America in a state of rebellion
  104. Prohibitory Act
    1775 was passed as a measure of retaliation by Great Britain against the general rebellion then going on in her American colonies, which became known as the American Revolutionary War. It declared and provided for a naval blockade against American ports.
  105. Richard Henry Lee
    American statesman from Virginia best known for the motion in the Second Continental Congress calling for the colonies' independence from Great Britain
  106. Virginia Resolution
    They unanimously  approved this resolution requiring their delegates to the  Continental Congress to propose to the full Congress that the united  colonies ought to be "free  and independent States, absolved from all allegiance  to, or dependence upon,  the Crown or Parliament of Great Britain." This started  a chain of events  that led to the Declaration  of Independence only a few months later. Richard Henry Lee actually  submitted the resolution to Congress on June 7.Read more: http://www.revolutionary-war-and-beyond.com/virginia-resolution-proposing-independence.html#ixzz2ffvRS3En
  107. The Crisis Papers
    The American Crisis was a series of pamphlets published from 1776 to 1783 during the American Revolution by eighteenth century enlightenment Philosopher and author Thomas Paine.
  108. Brandywine Creek
    fought between the American army of Major General George Washington and the British army of General Sir William Howe on September 11, 1777. The British defeated the Americans and forced them to withdraw toward the rebel capital of Philadelphia
  109. Germantown
    neighborhood in the northwest section of the city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, about 7–8 miles northwest from the center of the city. The neighborhood is rich in historic sites and buildings from the colonial era
  110. Kings mountain
    decisive battle between the Patriot and Loyalist militias in the Southern campaign of the American Revolutionary War. The actual battle took place on October 7, 1780, nine miles south of the present-day town of Kings Mountain, where the Patriot militia defeated the Loyalist militia commanded by British Major Patrick Ferguson
  111. Cowpens
    decisive victory by the Continental Army forces under Brigadier General Daniel Morgan, in the Southern campaign of the American Revolutionary War over the British Army led by Colonel Banastre Tarleton. It was a turning point in the reconquest of South Carolina from the British
  112. Bill of Rights
    collective name for the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution. Proposed to assuage the fears of Anti-Federalists who had opposed Constitutional ratification, these amendments guarantee a number of personal freedoms, limit the government's power in judicial and other proceedings, and reserve some powers to the states and the public
  113. Constitutional Convention
    May 25 to September 17, 1787, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to address problems in governing the United States of America, which had been operating under the Articles of Confederation following independence from Great Britain. Although the Convention was intended to revise the Articles of Confederation, the intention from the outset of many of its proponents, chief among them James Madison and Alexander Hamilton, was to create a new government rather than fix the existing one
  114. separation of powers
    • Montesquieu
    • executive, judicial, and legislative
  115. checks and balances
    • keeps absolute power divided
    • each branch makes sure the others don't get too strong
  116. strict constructionism
    elastic clause- constitution doesn't specifically give power to government, they don't have that power
  117. loose constructionism
    constitution doesn't prohibit power of government, they have the power
  118. Charles Beard
    • Economic Interpretation of the Constitution
    • property classes sought to protect themselves
  119. ratification
    principal's approval of an act of its agent where the agent lacked authority to legally bind the principal. The term applies to private contract law, international treaties, and constitutionals in federations such as the United States and Canada

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