S&P Exam 1

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S&P Exam 1
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  1. An electrochemical signal that begins in the dendrites of a neuron and travels down the axon to the axon terminals.
    action potential
  2. The minimum intensity of a physical stimulus that can just be detected by an observer.
    absolute threshold
  3. The assumption that the functional organization of human cognition and of the brain is essentially the same in everyone.
    assumption of cognitive uniformity
  4. A projection that emanates from the cell body of a neuron and that conducts neural signals to the axon terminals, for transmission to other neurons.
    axon
  5. Endings of an axon, where neural signals are transmitted to other neurons.
    axon terminals
  6. A neuron's low rate of spontaneous firing at fairly random intervals in the absence of any stimulus.
    baseline firing rate
  7. The information contained in neural signals from receptors.
    bottom-up information
  8. The part of a cell that contains the nucleus.
    cell body
  9. A cell structure that separates what's inside the cell from what's outside the cell.
    cell membrane
  10. The outermost layer of the cerebral hemispheres; about 2-4 mm thick and consisting mostly of gray matter (neural cell bodies).
    cerebral cortex
  11. The two most important divisions of the brain; separated by the longitudinal fissure.
    cerebral hemispheres
  12. The investigation of perceptual and cognitive deficits in individuals with brain damage in order to discover how perception and cognition are carried out in the normal, undamaged brain.
    cognitive neuropsychology
  13. A large bundle of axons that constitutes the major connection between the two cerebral hemispheres.
    corpus callosum
  14. In a signal detection experiment, a response indicating that no signal was detected on a trial when no signal was presented.
    correct rejection
  15. n signal detection theory, the difference between the mean of the curve showing the strength of perceptual evidence (e.g., the number of action potentials) when no signal is presented and the mean of the curve when a signal is presented; depends on the physical intensity of the signal and the participant's perceptual sensitivity, but not on the participant's decision criterion.
    d9
  16. In a signal detection experiment, a participant's tendency to be liberal or conservative in deciding whether a signal was detected; indicated by the value of the participant's decision criterion.
    decision-making bias
  17. Projections that emanate from the cell body of a neuron and that receive signals from other neurons.
    dendrites
  18. Part of the sequence of events of an action potential, during which an inflow of positively charged ions causes the membrane potential to become markedly more positive.
    • depolarization
  19. The minimum difference between two stimuli that allows an observer to perceive that the two stimuli are different.
    difference threshold
  20. In cognitive neuropsychology, a pattern of brain damage and impaired function in which damage to some specific brain region is associated with impairment of some specific function but not with impairment of another function.
    dissociation
  21. A perceived object or event in the world.
    distal stimulus
  22. In cognitive neuropsychology, a pattern of brain damage and impaired function in which damage to some specific brain region is associated with impairment of some specific function A but not with impairment of another function B, along with a pattern (in a different patient) in which damage to a different region is associated with impairment of function B but not with impairment of function A.
    double dissociation
  23. A functional neuroimaging technique based on measurement of the electrical fields associated with brain activity.
    electroencephalography (EEG)
  24. Neurotransmitters that have an excitatory effect on the postsynaptic neuron, increasing the probability that an action potential will be initiated.
    excitatory neurotransmitters
  25. The effect of an excitatory neurotransmitter, making the postsynaptic neuron's membrane potential more positive.
    excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP)
  26. In a signal detection experiment, a response indicating that a signal was detected on a trial when no signal was presented.
    false alarm
  27. The rate at which a neuron produces action potentials; usually expressed in terms of spikes per second.
    firing rate
  28. One of the four lobes of each cerebral hemisphere; separated from the temporal lobe by the lateral sulcus and from the parietal lobe by the central sulcus.
    frontal lobe
  29. A functional neuroimaging technique based on measurement of the changes in blood oxygenation associated with brain activity.
    functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
  30. An array of techniques for measuring brain activity in healthy volunteers carrying out carefully designed tasks.
    functional neuroimaging
  31. The cell bodies of neurons making up the cerebral cortex.
    gray matter
  32. An elongated bump on the surface of the cerebral hemispheres.
    gyrus
  33. Neurotransmitters that have an inhibitory effect on the postsynaptic neuron, decreasing the probability that an action potential will be initiated.
    inhibitory neurotransmitters
  34. The effect of an inhibitory neurotransmitter, making the postsynaptic neuron's membrane potential more negative.
    inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP)
  35. An atom that has an imbalance in the number of protons and electrons and that therefore has an electric charge.
    ion
  36. Small pores in the cell membrane of neurons through which certain ions can flow into or out of the cell.
    ion channels
  37. A functional neuroimaging technique based on measurement of the magnetic fields associated with brain activity.
    magnetoencephalography (MEG)
  38. A difference in electrical potential across the cell membrane, due to a difference in the concentrations of positive and negative ions inside and outside the cell.
    membrane potential
  39. A behavioral method used in psychophysical experiments; the participant observes a stimulus and adjusts a knob that directly controls the intensity of the stimulus.
    method of adjustment
  40. A behavioral method used in psychophysical experiments; the participant is presented with a fixed set of stimuli covering a range of intensities that are presented repeatedly in random order, and the participant must indicate whether or not each stimulus was detected.
    method of constant stimuli
  41. The idea that the human mind and brain consist of a set of distinct modules, each of which carries out one or more specific functions.
    modularity
  42. A bundle of axons that travel together from one location in the nervous system to another.
    nerve
  43. A pattern of neural signals that carries information about a stimulus and can serve as a representation of that stimulus.
    neural code
  44. Information-carrying electrochemical signals produced and transmitted by neurons.
    neural signals
  45. The principle that perception depends on the combined activity of many specialized neurons, each of which responds to specific aspects of a stimulus.
    neuron doctrine
  46. Cells of the nervous system that produce and transmit information-carrying signals.
    neurons
  47. Chemical substances involved in the transmission of signals between neurons; neurotransmitter molecules released into a synapse by the neuron sending a signal bind to receptors on the neuron receiving the signal.
    neurotransmitters
  48. In the study of neural activity, slight random variation in the number of action potentials produced by neurons in response to a fixed sensory stimulus.
    noise
  49. One of the four lobes of each cerebral hemisphere; separated from the parietal lobe by the parieto-occipital sulcus.
    occipital lobe
  50. One of the four lobes of each cerebral hemisphere; separated from the frontal lobe by the central sulcus, from the temporal lobe by the lateral sulcus, and from the occipital lobe by the parieto-occipital sulcus.
    parietal lobe
  51. The later steps in the perceptual process, whereby the initial sensory signals are used to represent objects and events so they can be identified, stored in memory, and used in thought and action.
    perception
  52. A functional neuroimaging technique based on measurement of the changes in blood flow associated with brain activity, using a radioactive substance introduced into the blood.
    positron emission tomography (PET)
  53. The membrane of the dendrite or cell body receiving a neural signal.
    postsynaptic membrane
  54. The membrane at the axon terminal of a neuron producing an action potential.
    presynaptic membrane
  55. A physical phenomenon evoked by a distal stimulus that impinges on the specialized cells of a sense.
    proximal stimulus
  56. A curve that relates a measure of perceptual experience to the intensity of a physical stimulus.
    psychometric function
  57. The process of measuring how changes in stimulus intensity relate to changes in the perceived intensity.
    psychophysical scaling
  58. A field of study concerned with relating psychological experience to physical stimuli.
    psychophysics
  59. In a signal detection experiment, a curve representing the quality of a participant's performance.
    receiver operating characteristic (ROC)
  60. Following an action potential, a brief period during which a new action potential cannot be initiated.
    refractory period
  61. Information in the mind and brain used to identify objects and events, to store them in memory, and to support thought and action.
    representations
  62. The membrane potential when a neuron is at rest (about 270 mV).
    resting potential
  63. The initial steps in the perceptual process, whereby physical features of the environment are converted into electrochemical signals that are sent to the brain for processing.
    sensation
  64. Physiological functions for converting particular environmental features into electrochemical signals.
    senses
  65. Specialized neurons that convert proximal stimuli into neural signals.
    sensory receptors
  66. A framework for measuring how people make decisions based on noisy perceptual evidence; provides a way to measure perceptual sensitivity apart from the decision-making style.
    signal detection theory
  67. A technique used to measure the membrane potential.
    single-cell recording
  68. A behavioral method used in psychophysical experiments; the participant is presented with a stimulus and indicates whether it was detected, and based on that response, the next stimulus is either one step up or one step down in intensity.
    staircase method
  69. A statement of the relationship between the physical intensity of a stimulus and its perceived intensity (S = cIn, where S is the perceived intensity of the stimulus, I is its physical intensity, the exponent n is different for each perceptual dimension, and c is a constant that depends on which units are being used for S and I).
    Stevens power law
  70. The objects and events that are perceived (distal stimuli) and the physical phenomena they produce (proximal stimuli).
    stimuli
  71. An indentation between two gyri on the surface of the cerebral hemispheres.
    sulcus
  72. A tiny gap between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrite or cell body of another neuron.
    synapse
  73. Within axon terminals, tiny sacs that contain neurotransmitter molecules.
    synaptic vesicles
  74. One of the four lobes of each cerebral hemisphere; separated from the frontal lobe and the parietal lobe by the lateral sulcus.
    temporal lobe
  75. The most important subcortical structure involved in perception; most neural signals pass through the thalamus on their paths from the sensory organs to the cortex.
    thalamus
  76. An observer's knowledge, expectations, and goals, which can affect perception.
    top-down information
  77. The transformation of a physical stimulus into neural signals.
    transduction
  78. In signal detection theory, a measure of the overall satisfaction resulting from a given decision.
    utility
  79. The constant k in Weber's law (JND = kI).
    Weber fraction
  80. A statement of the relationship between the intensity of a standard stimulus and the size of the just noticeable difference (JND = kI, where I is the intensity of the standard stimulus and k is a constant that depends on the perceptual dimension being measured).
    Weber's law
  81. The myelin-covered axons of cortical neurons, making up the interior parts of the cerebral hemispheres; these axons connect neurons located in different parts of the cerebral cortex.
    white matter
  82. Adjustment of the shape of the lens so light from objects at different distances focuses correctly on the retina.
    accommodation
  83. A measure of how clearly fine detail is seen.
    acuity
  84. Neurons in the inner nuclear layer of the retina.
    amacrine cells
  85. A condition in which both eyes develop normally but the neural signals from one eye aren't processed properly, so that fine vision doesn't develop in that eye.
    amblyopia
  86. The space between the cornea and the iris, filled with aqueous humor.
    anterior chamber
  87. A clear, thin fluid filling the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye.
    aqueous humor
  88. A condition in which the curvature of the cornea or lens is slightly irregular or asymmetrical, making it impossible for the lens to fully accommodate.
    astigmatism
  89. Neurons in the inner nuclear layer of the retina.
    bipolar cells
  90. A progressive "clouding" of the lens that can, if left untreated, lead to blindness.
    cataract
  91. An RGC receptive field in which the center of the receptive field responds differently to stimulation than the surrounding portion of the field.
    center-surround receptive field
  92. The middle membrane of the eye, lining the interior of the sclera and containing most of the blood vessels that supply the inside of the eye with oxygen and nutrients.
    choroid
  93. Tiny muscles attached to the choroid; they relax and contract to control how the choroid pulls on the zonule fibers to change the shape of the lens.
    ciliary muscles
  94. One of the two classes of photoreceptors, named for their distinctive shape.
    cones
  95. A property of retinal circuits in which multiple photoreceptors send signals to one RGC.
    convergence
  96. A transparent membrane at the front of the eye; light enters the eye by first passing through the cornea, which sharply refracts the light.
    cornea
  97. The process of adjusting retinal sensitivity (changing the operating range) as the person moves from a bright environment to a darker one; the reverse process is called light adaptation.
    dark adaptation
  98. Units used to express the power of a lens; diopters 5 1/(focal length).
    diopters
  99. A process by which the visual system makes edges as visible as possible, facilitating perception of where one object or surface ends in the retinal image and another begins.
    edge enhancement
  100. A physical phenomenon that is simultaneously both a wave and a stream of particles.
    electromagnetic radiation
  101. The entire range of wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation.
    electromagnetic spectrum
  102. Three pairs of muscles around each eye that enable us to move our eyes very rapidly and accurately and keep the eyes always pointed in the same direction.
    extraocular muscles
  103. The portion of the surrounding space you can see when your eyes are in a given position in their sockets.
    field of view
  104. Shadows on the retina thrown by debris within the vitreous humor; perceived as small, semitransparent spots or threads that appear to be floating before the person's eyes and tend to move with the eyes.
    floaters
  105. The distance from a lens at which the image of an object is in focus when the object is far away from the lens (at "optical infinity").
    focal length
  106. A region in the center of the retina where the light from objects at the center of our gaze strikes the retina; contains no rods and a very high density of cones.
    fovea
  107. The layer of the retina that contains retinal ganglion cells.
    ganglion cell layer
  108. A condition in which the intraocular pressure is too high for the person's eye, most commonly caused by blockage of the openings that let aqueous humor drain from the anterior chamber.
    glaucoma
  109. Neurons in the inner nuclear layer of the retina.
    horizontal cells
  110. A condition in which the optic axis is too short and accommodation cannot make the lens thick enough to focus light from a nearby object on the retina, so the light comes to a focus behind the retina, and the image on the retina is blurry; the person can see distant objects clearly but not nearby objects.
    hyperopia (or farsightedness)
  111. A technology used in night-vision devices; dim light is amplified by converting photons into electrons, amplifying the number of electrons, and then using the electrons to produce a pattern of varying intensities on a phosphor-coated screen
    image enhancement
  112. The layer of the retina that contains bipolar cells, horizontal cells, and amacrine cells.
    inner nuclear layer
  113. The layer of the retina that contains the synapses among bipolar cells, amacrine cells, and RGCs.
    inner synaptic layer
  114. The pressure of the fluids in the three chambers of the eye.
    intraocular pressure
  115. The colored part of the eyeÛa small circular muscle with an opening in the middle (the pupil) through which light enters the eye.
    iris
  116. Different possible shapes of molecules, such as the all-trans retinal and 11-cis-retinal shapes of photopigment molecules.
    isomers
  117. Surgery to reshape the cornea in order to correct disorders of accommodation.
    LASIK
  118. Inhibitory neural signals transmitted by horizontal cells in retinal circuits.
    lateral inhibition
  119. A transparent structure near the front of the eye that refracts the light passing through the pupil so that the light focuses properly on the retina.
    lens
  120. Visible illumination; a type of electromagnetic radiation, corresponding to a small slice of wavelengths in the middle of the electromagnetic spectrum.
    light
  121. A difference in the intensity of illumination at adjacent retinal locations.
    luminance contrast
  122. A condition characterized by damage to the photoreceptors in a region at the center of the retina; the leading cause of severe visual loss in the United States.
    macular degeneration
  123. A condition in which the optic axis is too long and accommodation cannot make the lens thin enough to focus light from a distant object on the retina, so the light comes to a focus in front of the retina, and the image on the retina is blurry; the person can see nearby objects clearly but not distant objects.
    myopia (or nearsightedness)
  124. The closest distance at which a person can bring an object into focus; presbyopia is characterized by a progressive increase in the distance from the eye to the near point as the person ages.
    near point
  125. Devices to enable vision in total or near-total darkness.
    night-vision devices (NVDs)
  126. The three main layers of the retina, including the outer nuclear layer, inner nuclear layer, and ganglion cell layer.
    nuclear layers
  127. Receptive fields of RGCs with center-surround structure in which the RGCs decrease their firing rate when the amount of light striking the center of the receptive field decreases relative to the amount of light striking the surround.
    off-center receptive fields
  128. Receptive fields of RGCs with center-surround structure in which the RGCs increase their firing rate when the amount of light striking the center of the receptive field increases relative to the amount of light striking the surround.
    on-center receptive fields
  129. The visual system's sensitivity to the range of light intensities within the current scene; the visual system adjusts its operating range according to current conditions.
    operating range
  130. The spatial pattern of light rays, varying in brightness and color, entering your eyes from different locations in a scene.
    optic array
  131. An imaginary diameter line from the front to the back of the eye, passing through the center of the lens
    optic axis
  132. Location on the retina where the axons of RGCs exit the eye; contains no photoreceptors.
    optic disk (or blind spot)
  133. Nerve formed by the bundling together of the axons of RGCs; it exits the eye through the optic disk.
    optic nerve
  134. The layer of the retina consisting of photoreceptors (but not including their inner and outer segments).
    outer nuclear layer
  135. The layer of the retina that contains the synapses among photoreceptors, bipolar cells, and horizontal cells.
    outer synaptic layer
  136. Brief, tiny bright flashes in the person's field of view not caused by light but by any of a variety of other causes.
    phosphenes
  137. A change in shape by a photopigment molecule from one isomer (11-cis retinal) to another (all-trans retinal) when the molecule absorbs a photon; initiates the transduction of light to a neural signal.
    photoisomerization
  138. Single particles of light; a photon is the smallest possible quantity of electromagnetic radiation.
    photons
  139. A molecule with the ability to absorb light and initiate transduction.
    photopigment
  140. The process whereby photopigment molecules change back into the 11-cis shape after photoisomerization.
    photopigment regeneration
  141. Retinal neurons (rods and cones) that transduce light into neural signals.
    photoreceptors
  142. A layer of cells attached to the choroid; photoreceptors are embedded in it.
    pigment epithelium
  143. The space between the iris and the lens, filled with aqueous humor.
    posterior chamber
  144. The type of stimulus that produces a neuron's maximum firing rate; for RGCs with on-center receptive fields, the preferred stimulus is a spot of light that exactly fills the center of the receptive field.
    preferred stimulus
  145. A common condition in which the lens becomes less elastic with age, characterized by a progressive increase in the distance from the eye to the near point as the person ages; as in hyperopia, accommodation can't make the lens thick enough to focus light from nearby objects
    presbyopia
  146. An opening in the middle of the iris, through which light enters the eye.
    pupil
  147. The automatic process by which the iris contracts and relaxes to control the size of the pupil, in response to the relative brightness of light entering the eye.
    pupillary reflex
  148. The region of a sensory surface that, when stimulated, causes a change in the firing rate of a neuron that "monitors" that region of the surface; the receptive field of an RGC is the region of the retina occupied by the photoreceptors to which the RGC is connected.
    receptive field
  149. The inner membrane of the eye, made up of neurons, including the photoreceptors that convert the light entering the eye into neural signals. s (RGCs)
    retina
  150. Neurons in the ganglion cell layer of the retina.
    retinal ganglion cells (RGCs)
  151. A clear image on the retina of the optic array.
    retinal image
  152. An inherited condition in which there is gradual degeneration of the photoreceptors over many years, often leading to night blindness and "tunnel vision."
    retinitis pigmentosa (RP)
  153. Individuals with a very rare genetic disorder in which the retina develops with rods but without cones; used in dark adaptation experiments to establish the curve for rods.
    rod monochromats
  154. One of the two classes of photoreceptors, named for their distinctive shape.
    rods
  155. The outer membrane of the eye; a tough protective covering whose visible portion is the white of the eye and the transparent cornea at the front of the eye.
    sclera
  156. A property of retinal circuits with convergence in which signals from photoreceptors in some small space on the retina summate (add up) to affect the response of the RGC in the circuit.
    spatial summation
  157. The degree to which a photopigment molecule absorbs light of different wavelengths.
    spectral sensitivity
  158. A disorder of the extraocular muscles in which the two eyes are not aligned with one another, resulting in a double image, which impairs binocular depth perception.
    strabismus
  159. In the retina, two layers separating the three nuclear layers the outer synaptic layer and inner synaptic layer.
    synaptic layers
  160. A technology used in night-vision devices; infrared radiation emitted by objects and surfaces in a scene are converted into a visible electronic image.
    thermal imaging
  161. The main interior portion of the eye, filled with vitreous humor.
    vitreous chamber
  162. A clear, somewhat gel-like fluid filling the vitreous chamber of the eye.
    vitreous humor
  163. The distance between two successive peaks of a wave; different types of electromagnetic radiation are defined by their differences in wavelength.
    wavelength
  164. Fibers that connect the lens to the choroid; they pull on the lens to change its shape.
    zonule fibers
  165. Retinal ganglion cells that send signals to the koniocellular layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus.
    bistratified retinal ganglion cells
  166. Neurons in area V1 that respond best to a stimulus with a particular orientation; differ from simple cells in the variety and location of stimuli that generate a response.
    complex cells
  167. Opposite-side organization, in which stimulation of neurons on one side of the body or sensory organ is represented by the activity of neurons in the opposite side of the brain.
    contralateral organization
  168. A small volume of neural tissue running through the layers of the cortex perpendicular to its surface; consists of neurons that respond to similar types of stimuli and that have highly overlapping receptive fields.
    cortical column
  169. The nonuniform representation of visual space in the cortex; the amount of cortical territory devoted to the central part of the visual field is much greater than the amount devoted to the periphery.
    cortical magnification
  170. A visual pathway that runs from V1 and V2 into MT and then to the parietal cortex; represents properties that relate to an object's motion or location and that can be used to guide actions.
    dorsal pathway
  171. The specialization of different neural pathways and different areas of the brain for representing different kinds of information.
    functional specialization
  172. An area in the fusiform gyrus of the IT cortex; a functional module that responds selectively to faces.
    fusiform face area (FFA)
  173. The cortex in the bottom part of the temporal lobe; one of the object-selective regions of the visual system.
    inferotemporal cortex (IT cortex)
  174. Layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus containing neurons with very small cell bodies.
    koniocellular layers
  175. Part of the thalamus (one in each hemisphere); receives visual signals via the axons of retinal ganglion cells.
    lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN)
  176. An area of the occipital lobe; one of the object-selective regions of the visual system.
    lateral occipital cortex
  177. Layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus containing neurons with large cell bodies.
    magnocellular layers
  178. Retinal ganglion cells that send signals to the parvocellular layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus.
    midget retinal ganglion cells
  179. An area in the middle temporal lobe consisting of neurons that respond selectively to the direction and speed of motion of stimuli.
    MT
  180. A function of brain areas in which signals from different sensory systems are combined.
    multisensory integration
  181. Cortical columns consisting of neurons that receive signals from the left eye only or the right eye only.
    ocular dominance columns
  182. A deficit in the ability to guide movements visually.
    optic ataxia
  183. The location where the optic nerves from the two eyes split in half, with half the axons from each eye crossing over to the other hemisphere of the brain.
    optic chiasm
  184. The continuation of the optic nerve past the optic chiasm; the right optic tract consists of axons from the retinal ganglion cells in the right half of each retina, and the left optic tract consists of axons from the left half of each retina.
    optic tract
  185. Cortical columns consisting of neurons with the same (or very similar) orientation tuning.
    orientation columns
  186. A curve on a graph that shows the average response of an orientation-tuned neuron such as a simple cell to stimuli with different orientations.
    orientation tuning curve
  187. An area in the parahippocampal gyrus of the IT cortex; a functional module that responds selectively to large-scale spatial layouts such as landscapes and buildings.
    parahippocampal place area (PPA)
  188. Retinal ganglion cells that send signals to the magnocellular layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus.
    parasol retinal ganglion cells
  189. Layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus containing neurons with small cell bodies.
    parvocellular layers
  190. A consistent difference in the patterning of the relative responses of a population of differently tuned neurons; used to compute perceptual features such as the orientation of a visual stimulus.
    population code
  191. The stimulus orientation that tends to produce the strongest response from an orientation-tuned neuron such as a simple cell.
    preferred orientation
  192. The part of the occipital lobe where signals flow from the lateral geniculate nucleus.
    primary visual cortex (or V1)
  193. An arrangement of neurons in the visual system whereby signals from retinal ganglion cells with receptive fields that are next to each other on the retina travel to neurons that are next to each other in each visual area of the brain.
    retinotopic mapping
  194. A type of neuron in area V1 that responds best to a stimulus with a particular orientation in the location of its receptive field.
    simple cell
  195. A structure near the top of the brain stem (one in each hemisphere); its principal function is to help control eye movements.
    superior colliculus (SC)
  196. An area in the occipital lobe consisting of neurons that respond selectively to the color of stimuli and to the curvature of edges.
    V4
  197. A visual pathway that runs from V1 and V2 into V4 and then to the inferotemporal cortex; represents properties that relate to an object's identity, such as its color and shape.
    ventral pathway
  198. Devices designed to help the blind see; relay signals from a camera or photocells to implanted stimulators that activate the visual system.
    visual neuroprosthetic devices
  199. In object recognition, the use of mathematical probabilities to describe the process of perceptual inference.
    Bayesian approach
  200. The perception that an edge, or border, is "owned" by a particular region of the retinal image.
    border ownership
  201. Representation of objects by patterns of activity across many regions of the brain.
    distributed coding
  202. The perception of a partially hidden edge as complete; one of the operations involved in perceptual interpolation.
    edge completion
  203. The process by which the visual system determines the location, orientation, and curvature of edges in the retinal image.
    edge extraction
  204. A region of an image that is perceived as being part of an object.
    figure
  205. A neuron that responds to a particular object at a conceptual level, firing in response to the object itself, a photo of it, its printed name, and so on.
    grandmother cell
  206. A region of an image that is perceived as part of the background.
    ground
  207. In perceptual organization, rules of thumb based on evolved principles and on knowledge of physical regularities.
    heuristics
  208. Nonexistent but perceptually real edges perceived as a result of edge completion.
    illusory contours
  209. A characteristic of visual scenes in which many objects are scattered in 3-D space, with partial occlusion of various parts of objects by other objects.
    image clutter
  210. Representation of an object by a module, a region of the brain that is specialized for representing a particular category of objects.
    modular coding
  211. Refers to the fact that the world contains an enormous variety of objects.
    object variety
  212. The process by which the visual system combines separate regions of the retinal image that "go together" based on similar properties.
    perceptual grouping
  213. In vision, the interpretation of a retinal image using heuristics.
    perceptual inference
  214. The process by which the visual system fills in hidden edges and surfaces in order to represent the entirety of a partially visible object.
    perceptual interpolation
  215. A type of visual agnosia in which the person is unable to recognize faces, with little or no loss of ability to recognize other types of objects.
    prosopagnosia
  216. The perception of a partially hidden surface as complete; one of the operations involved in perceptual interpolation.
    surface completion
  217. A type of visual agnosia in which the person is unable to recognize spatial layouts such as buildings, streets, landscapes, and so on.
    topographic agnosia
  218. A characteristic of regions of the retinal image that have approximately uniform properties.
    uniform connectedness
  219. The different retinal images that can be projected by the same object or category of objects.
    variable views
  220. An impairment in object recognition.
    visual agnosia

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