CD118: Chapter 1

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CD118: Chapter 1
2013-09-25 22:06:05
Child Development

The Nature of Child Development
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  1. Development
    Is the pattern of change that begins at conception and continues through the life span

    Involves Growth, although it also includes decay
  2. After analyzing samples of art along with available publications, historian Philippe Aries Concluded...?
    That European societies prior to 1600 did not give any special status to children
  3. What might have led to a misperception on Philippe Aries conclusion?
    He primarily sampled aristocratic and idealized subjects.

    Childhood probably was recognized as a distinct phase of life more that Aries believed
  4. Original Sin View ( When, What, Goal)
    • -Advocated during the middle ages 
    • -Children were perceived as being born into the world as evil beings
    • -The goal of child rearing was to provide salvation, to remove sin from the child's life
  5. Tabula rasa view ( when, what, who, goal)
    • -Toward the end of the 17th century 
    • -Proposed by English philosopher John Lock
    • -Argued that children were not innately bad but instead start out like a "blank tablet"
    • -Childhood experiences are important in determining adult characteristics 
    • -advised parents to spend time with their children and help them become contributing members of society
  6. -Proposed by English philosopher John Lock-Argued that children were not innately bad but instead start out like a "blank tablet"-Childhood experiences are important in determining adult characteristics 
    Which philosophical view is this?
    Tabula Rasa View
  7. Innate goodness view (when, what, who, goal)
    • -18th century 
    • -presented by Swiss born french philosopher Jean- Jacques Rousseau
    • -Stressed that children are inherently good
    • - Because they are good they should be permitted to grow naturally with little parent supervision or constraints
  8. It was the adults job to remove the sin from the child.. which view ?
    Original Sin view
  9. Children entered this world as a empty canvas or blank slate and the adult could mold
    the child however they wanted.. VIEW?
    Tabula Rosa , John Locke
  10. Early influential psychologist in the child development field were trained in the ___? Which is __ and __?
    Natural Sciences

    Biology and medicine
  11. Early psychologist (Darwin and Frued) would get results from?
    • experiments, get results from your experiment and draw conclusions from what you have
    • learned
  12. Alfred Binet
    • New thinker who began to try new methods of studying infants,children, and adolesents
    • -Invented many tasks to assess attention and memory
    • - used them to study his own daughter and different types of children
    • -Eventually collaborated in the development of the first modern test of intelligence( the Binet test)
  13. G. Stanley Hall method and views?
    • Thinker who began to try new methods to study children
    • -Pioneered the use of the questionnaires with large groups of children
    • -Heavily influenced by the Evolutionary theory
    • --argued that child development follows a natural evolutionary course that can be revealed by child studies
    • --he theorized that child development unfolds in stages, with distinct motives and capabilities at each stage
  14. Arnold Gesell- invention and purpose?
    • - Invented the Photographic dome(1928), so he could systematically observe children's behavior w/o interrupting them
    • -strove for the precision in charting what a child is like at specific ages
  15. Arnold Gesell views?
    • -Strongly influenced by Darwin's evolutionary theory 
    • -He argued that certain characteristics of children simply "bloom" with age because of a biological and maturational blueprint
  16. Direct Study of Children
    In which the investigator directly observes children's behavior, conduct experiment and obtains information about the children  by questioning their parents and teachers
  17. Health and well-being, parenting, and education-like development  itself- are all shaped by their?
    Socio-cultural Context
  18. Context
    the settings, influenced by historical, economic, social, and cultural factors, in which development occurs
  19. Culture
    • the behavior patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a group that are passed on from generation to generation. 
    • - a culture group can be as large as the US or as small as an isolated small town
    • -whatever the size, the group's culture influences the behavior or its members
  20. Ethnicity
    • a characteristic based on cultural heritage, nationality, race, religion and language 
    • EX Native American, Polish American, Asian American, Latino
  21. Cross-Cultural Studies. Definition? Purpose?
    • Compares aspects of two or more cultures.
    • -These provide information about the degree to which children's development is similar, or universal, across cultures, and to the degree to which it is culture specific
  22. Do diversities exist within ethnic groups? EX?
    Yes, Not all African Americans are living with low income. Not all Latinos are Catholic
  23. Socioeconomic Status (SES)
    Categorization(Person's position within society) based on a person's occupational, educational and economic characteristics.
  24. (SES) Generally, members of a society have (4)?
    What does this produce?
    • 1. Occupations that vary in prestige and some individuals have more access than others to higher status occumations
    • 2. different levels of educational attainment and some individuals have more access than others to better education
    • 3.different economic resources
    • 4. different levels of power to influence a community's institutions 

    These differences in the ability to control resources and to participate in society's rewards produce unequal opportunities
  25. Gender
    • the characteristics of people as males and females
    • -how you view yourself
  26. Ann Masten and her colleagues  concluded that?
    a number of individual factors influence resiliency such as good intellectual functioning, appealing, sociable, easygoing, high self esteem, talents and faiths. In addition, . their family and resources outside  tend to show certain features( close relationship to caring parent figure, authoritative parenting: warmth, structure, high expectations.

    Extra-familial context : bonds to caring adults outside the family, connections to positive organizations
  27. Social Policy
    A governments course of action designed to promote welfare of its citizens
  28. What influences the social policy agenda related to children?
    The values held by citizens and elected officials, the nations economic strengths and weaknesses and partisan politics
  29. The pattern of human development is created by which  3 key processes?
    • Biological
    • Cognitive 
    • Socioemotional
  30. Biological Processess
    • Produce change in an individuals body
    • - Genes inherited from parents, the development of the brain, height, and weight gain, development of motor skills and the hormonal changes of puberty all reflect the role of biological processes in development
  31. Genes inherited from parents, the development of the brain, height, and weight gain, development of motor skills and the hormonal changes of puberty all reflect the role of __ ___ in development
    biological processes
  32. Cognitive Processes? Example?
    • Refers to the change in the individual's thought, intelligence and language
    • -Tasks of watching a mobile swinging above a crib, putting together a two word sentence, memorizing a poem, solving a math problem, and imagining what it would be like to be a movie star all involve cognitive processes
  33. Socio-Emotional Processes? Example?
    • Involves changes in an individuals relationship with other people
    • -infants smile to mothers touch, a child's attack on a playmate, adolescents joy at the senior prom reflect socioemtional develpment
  34. developmental cognitive neuroscience
    explores link between cognitive processes and the brain
  35. Developmental social neuroscience
    explores link between development, socioemotional processes and the brain
  36. prenatal period
    • the time from conception to birth.
    • roughly a nine month period
    • during this time a single cell grows into a organism, complete with a brain and behavioral capabilities
  37. Infancy
    • the developmental period that extends from birth to a bout 18-24months.
    • -Extreme dependency on adults
    • -many psychological activities are just beginning ( abilities to speak, to coordinate sensations and physical actions, to think with symbols and to imitate and learn from others)
  38. Early Childhood
    • The developmental period that extends from the end of infancy to about 5-6 years of age, some times called the preschool years
    • - learn to become more self sufficient and to care for themselves, develop school readiness skills( Following instructions, identifying letters.)
    • -spend many hours in play and with peers
    • -first grade marks the end of this period
  39. Middle and late childhood
    • - extends between 6 and 11 years of age
    • -sometimes referred to as elementary school years
    • -master the fundamental skills of reading, writing, and arithmetic 
    • -they are formally exposed to the larger world and its culture
    • -achievement becomes a more central theme of the child's world and self control increases
  40. Adolescence
    • 10-12 of age and ending at about 18-19(transition from childhood to early adulthood)
    • -begins with rapid physical change- dramatic gains in height and weight, development of sexual characteristics( enlargement of breasts, growth of pubic and facial hair) deepening of voice
    • -pursuit of independence and an identity 
    • -more and more time spent outside of family
    • -thought becomes more abstract, idealistic and logical
  41. Nature-nurture issue
    • debate about whether development is primarily influenced by nature or nurture
    • Nature- organisms biological inheritance
    • Nurture- environmental experiences
  42. Continuity-discontinuity issue
    Question about whether development involves gradual, cumulative change(continuity) or distinct stages(discontinuity)
  43. Early-Later experience issue
    controversy regarding the degree to which early experiences(especially during infancy) or later experiences are the key determinants of children's development

    Can early infant harmful experiences be over come later by positive experiences?
  44. Scientific method
    • an approach that can be used to obtain accurate information by carrying out 4 steps
    • 1.conceptualize the problem
    • 2. collect data
    • 3.draw conclusion
    • 4. revise research conclusions and theory
  45. scientific research
    • is objective, systematic and testable
    • -reduces the likelihood that information will be based on personal belief, opinions and feelings
  46. Theory
    -Interrelated, coherent set of ideas that helps to explain and to make predictions

    -A way to generate new ideas and new ways of thinking
  47. hypothesis
    • is a specific, testable assumption or prediction
    • - often written as an if-then
  48. Maturational Theory
    Basedon Charles Darwin

    • -Individuals may be influenced by heredity
    • -Things develop by your “inherited” time table
    • Puberty( when it begins)
    • Adult Height
    • When you will gain bladder control, potty train
    • When you will begin to read
  49. Psychoanalytical Theories
    • Theories that describe development as primarily unconscious and heavily colored by emotion
    • -Behavior is merely a surface characteristic and the symbolic workings of the mind have to be analyzed to understand the behavior
    • - Early experiences with parents are emphasized
  50. Sigmund Freud (Freud's psychosexual theory)
    • -Designed the “talking cure”- beginning of psychoanalysis
    • - was convinced patients problems were result of experiences early in life
    • -He thought that as children grow up, their focus of pleasure and sexual impulses shift from the mouth to the anus and eventually the genitals(5 stages of development)
    • -  our adult personality is determined by the way we resolve conflicts between sources of pleasure at each stage and the demands of reality
  51. 5 stages of pyschosexual development
    • Oral
    • (birth to 1 year)
    • Anal
    • (1-3 years)
    • Phallic
    • Stage (3-5)
    • Latency
    • (5 through adolescence)
    • Gential stage
    • (puberty onward)
  52. Erikson's Psychosocial Theory
    • Disagreed about Freud's instincts but focused on how society affects your ego
    • - Emphasized how an individual adapts to differing social demands
    • -8 stages cove the entire life span
    • -TrustvsMistrust(0-18months and last is Integrity vs despair(older adults)
  53. Cognitive Theories
    • Emphasize conscious thought-
    • Piagot and Vygotsky Theories
  54. Piaget's theory
    Theory stating that children actively construct their understanding of the world and go through 4 stages of cognitive development

    - Children Must be involved to understand their world
  55. Constructivism-knowledge is created through interactions between person’s understanding and
    the environment

    Which Theory and theorist?
    Jean Piaget's cognitive developmental theory
  56. Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934)
    Child gets knowledge from a more advanced member of society.Important knowledge varies from culture to culture
  57. Vygotsky's Theory
    A socialcultural cognitive theory that emphasizes how cultural and social interaction guide cognitive development
  58. Information-processing theory
    emphasizes that individuals manipulate information, monitor it and strategize about it. Central to this theory are the processes of memory and thinking

    early computers are the "founding fathers"
  59. Social Cognitive Theory
    • Albert Bandura
    • -The view of psychologists who emphasize behavior, environment, and cognition as the key factors in development
    • -Unlike behaviorists they believe cognition is just as important as environmental interactions in understanding development
  60. Behaviorism
    • Ivan Pavolv and John B Watson
    • -Focused on observable behavior opposed to internal events like thinking
    • - We can study scientifically only what can be directly observed and measured 
    • -Observed in a controlled laboratory setting
    • -Focus on what is observable, external behavior and how environment affects it.
  61. Pavlov's Classical Conditioning
    • Dog Experiment
    • - Neutral stimulus( hearing bell) acquires the ability to produce a response originally produced by another stimulus( food)  

    behaviors can be learned
  62. Skinners Operant Conditioning
    • suggested the concept of reinforcement
    • - consequences of a behavior changes the probability of the behaviors occurrence
    • -Rewards and punishment shape development
  63. Positive Reinforcement/ Theory?
    Increases the chances of a behavior will occur

    • Learned theory/behaviorism 
    • BF Skinner
  64. Negative responses in Skinners Conditioning ?
    • Negative responses also reinforce behavior
    • -Sometimes intentionally
    • - Sometimes  unintentionally( whining) 
    • Class story ( story/playing out side)
  65. observational learning
    • Social cognitive theory
    • -also called imitation or modeling
    • -learning that occurs through observing what others do
    • ex-boy sees dad acting aggressive later with his peers the boy acts aggressive
  66. What is cognitive about observational learning, in Bandura's view?
    He proposes that people cognitively  represent the behavior of others and then sometimes adopt this behavior themselves
  67. Bandura's social cognitive Model
  68. Ethology
    • Stresses that behavior is strongly influenced by biology, is tied to evolution, and is characterized by critical or sensitive periods
    • - these are specific time frames during which the presence or absence of certain experiences has a long lasting influence on individuals 
    • - zoologist Konrad Lorenz was important
  69. Eclectic Theoretical Orientation
    • An orientation that does not follow any one theoretical approach but rather selects from theory what ever is considered the best aspect
    • -The book takes this approach
  70. Laboratory
    Controlled setting from which many of the complex factors of the "real world" have been removed
  71. Naturalist observation
    behavioral observation that takes place in the real world
  72. Case study
    An in-depth look at a single individual
  73. Descriptive research
    research that involves observing and recording behavior
  74. Correlation research
    research in which the goal is to describe the strength of the relationship between two or more events or characteristics
  75. Correlation coefficient
    a number based on statistical analysis that is used to describe the degree of association between two variables
  76. Experiment
    A carefully regulated procedure in which one or more of the factors believed to influence the behavior being studied are manipulated while all other factors are held constant
  77. cross-sectional approach
    a research strategy in which individuals of different ages are compared at the same point in time
  78. longitudinal approach
    research strategy in which the same individuals are studied over a period of time, usually several years or more

    ex self esteem study might be conducted like this- assessed three times 5 8 and 11 yo
  79. Ethic Gloss
    Use of an ethnic label such as African american or Latino in a superficial way that portrays an ethnic group as being more homogeneous than it really is
  80. Zone of proximal development
    gap between what one can do independently and with assistance 

    narrow-slow wide-quicker