fundamentals of the management of laryngectomy and tracheostomy
The upper respiratory tract extends from the _______ to the inferior border of the _______ at the ________ cartilage.
The upper respiratory tract contains (3):
The lower respiratory tract includes (3):
Trachea, bronchi and lungs
How might you observe the upper respiratory tract?
Through a fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation (flexible scope is inserted through nose)
How might you observe the lower respiratory tract?
Bronchoscopy (must be asleep)
vital functions of the nose (3):
secondary functions (2):
Filter the air
Warm the air
humidify the air
adds resonance to speech
contains olfactory nerves for taste and smell
In the nasal cavity there are ____ that line and filter. The bony structures of the nose are called _______ which cause turbulence and resistance to airflow (aiding the in filtering). Blood supply to these structures aid in _______.
warming the air
The _____ and ______ separate the nasal and oral cavities.
The oral cavity begins at the ____ and ends at the ______ ______. It aids in ________ (5)
The delivery of oxygen and the removal of carbon dioxide
The thoracic cavity contains:
The thorax _______
The thoracic cavity is divided by ________ which contains:
12 thoracic vertebrae, sternum, rib cage
the heart, blood vessels, nerves, and esophagus
ribs attach to _______ and the ______ except for the ________ ribs
Deoxygenated blood returns via the ______ _______ heart pumps blood to lungs via ________ ________ where it is then _____________ and heads back to the heart to be dispersed by the _______
right lung has __ lobes
left lung has __ lobes
Surfactant is a ________ that maintains ________ ________ aiding the lungs so they don't __________
THe collapse of the alveolar air sacs
Lungs are housed in _______ _______
and similarly _______ ________ lines the thorax
________ pressure allows the visceral and parietal pleurae to stick together, in this way they are connected, which is called _______ __________. A __________ occurs when the airtight seal between pleurae is broken (resulting in _______ ________)
allows thorax to move _______ and ________
What is the major muscle of inspiration?
This muscle separates the ________ and _______
contracting and flattening the diaphragm _________ the volume of the thorax and _________ the volume of the abdomen.
Contraction of _________ muscles ________ thoracic volume by _________ the ribs
Accessory muscles to expiration:
these are active during ________ expiration
Accessory muscles to inspiration:
These muscles are activated when normal recoil of the lungs is not functional, for example:
pectoralis major musles
recurrent laryngeal nerve: intrinsic laryngeal muscles (except for the cricothyroid), provides sensory innervation to sublottic region
Superior laryngeal nerve: cricothyroid movement and supraglottic sensation
Pharyngeal: motor innervation of the pharynx/soft palate. Facilitates speech and swallowing
Since the diaphragm is innervated by the phrenic nerves (c3, c4, c5) then a high SCI will most likely result in the need for ____________
O2 is carried in ____ _____ _____ whose main component is ____________.
red blood cells
At the _______ _________ gas exchange takes place as _____ enters the alveoli and is exhaled from the body by the lungs