emotions that are present in humans and other animals and emerge early in life; examples are joy, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust.
emotions that require self awareness, especially consciousness and a sense of "me"; examples include jealousy, empathy, and embarrassment
self conscious emotions
the structural immaturity of the infant brain make it unlikely that emotions require much thought-such as guilt, pride, despair, shame etc can...
be experiences in the first year
the ability of infants to _____ _____ permits coordinated interactions with their caregivers and the beginning of an emotional bond between them.
the interaction of communication between parents and child are ___ ____ . because of this coordination, the interactions are describes as _____
mutually regulated; reciprocal
the most important mechanism newborns have for communication
_____ is a critical means of developing a new social skill and is a key social signal
babies communicating pre-existing positive emotion by smiling at an object and then turning their smile toward an adult
involves individual differences in behavioral styles, emotions, and characteristic ways of responding.
chess and thomas study found 3 types of child temperament
-slow to warm up child
generally in a positive mood, quickly establishes regular routines in infancy and adapts easily to new experiences
reacts negatively and cries frequently, engages in irregular daily routines, and is slow to accept change
has a low activity level, is somewhat negative, and displays a low intensity of mood
slow to warm up child
shyness with strangers (peers or adults) as one feature of a broad temperament category called _____ to the unfamiliar. _____ children react to many aspects of unfamiliarity with initial avoidance, distress, or subdued effect.
Kagans Behavioral Inhibition
Rothbart and Bates Classification
-effortful control (self-regulation)
includes positive anticipation, impulsivity, activity level, and sensation seeking. (rothbart and bates classification)
includes fear, frustration, sadness, and discomfort. these babies are easily distressed; they may fret and cry often. (rothbart and bates)
includes attentional focusing and shifting etc. infants who are high on ___ ____ show an ability to keep their arousal from getting to high and have strategies for soothing themselves (rothbart and bates)
effortful control (self-regulation)
refers to the match between a childs temperament and the environmental demands with which the child must cope
goodness of fit
ainsworths 4 categories attachment
-securely attached babies
-insecure avoidant babies
-insecure resistant babies
-insecure disorganized babies
uses the caregiver as a secure base from which to explore the environment. when in the presence of their caregiver, ____ ____ ____ explore the room. when the mom leaves they might mildly protest only to reestablish a positive connection when they return
securely attached babies
show insecurity by avoiding the caregiver. these babies engage in little interaction with the caregiver and are not distressed when she leaves the room and do not reestablish contact upon her return
insecure avoidant baby
often cling to the caregiver and then resist her by fighting against the closeness, perhaps by kicking or pushing away. these dont explore the playroom, and cry loudly when the caregiver leaves but push away if they are comforted
insecure resistant babies
these babies might appear dazed, confused, and fearful. must show strong patterns of avoidance and resistance or display extreme fearfulness around the caregiver
insecure disorganized babies
maternal sensitive responding was linked to infant attachment security.
although maternal sensitivity is positively linked to the development of secure attachment in infancy, it is important to note that the link is not especially strong.
caregiver of avoidant babies tend to be
unavailable or rejecting. they dont respond to their babies signals and have little physical contact with them
caregivers of resistant babies tend to be _____
inconsistent. sometimes they respond to their babies need and sometimes they dont
caregivers of disorganized babies often
neglect or physically abuse them.
15 percent of children 5 years of age and younger attend more then one
child care arrangement
children are more likely to experience poor quality child care if they come from