Chem 101 1-4

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lcunrod7
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236425
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Chem 101 1-4
Updated:
2013-09-22 23:01:24
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terms definitions
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study exam 1
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  1. what is the study of matter and the changes it can undergo
    chemisty
  2. anything that has mass and takes up space
    matter
  3. amount of matter in a sample
    mass
  4. has a definite shape and definite volume
    solid
  5. has a indefinite shape- it takes the shape of its container- definite volume
    liquid
  6. has indefinite shape and volume
    gas
  7. these are distinguishing characteristics of a substance used in its identification and description
    proterties
  8. what property is the boiling point, melting point, density examples of
    physical properties
  9. what property is something that has the ability to change into something else
    chemical property
  10. characteristics of a substance that describes how it undergoes or resists a change to form a new substance, penny rusting, paper burning
    chemical property
  11. a process in which a substance changes it physical properties without a change in chemical composition, ice melting, alcohol evaporating
    physical change
  12. a process in which a substance changes its chemical composition, iron nail rusting, milk turning sour *forms a new substance*
    chemical change
  13. cannot be broken down into simpler substance, have unique set of their own physical properties
    pure substance
  14. combination of two or more elements that retain chemical identity, can be broken down
    mixture
  15. in a mixture there are two or more visible phases
    hetergeneous
  16. in a mixture there is only one visible phase
    homogeneous
  17. pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler pure substance by chemical means
    element
  18. pure substance that can be broken down into two or more simpler pure substances by chemical means
    compound
  19. smallest particle of an element that still has the properties of the element
    atom
  20. group of two or more atoms that are tightly bound together
    molecule
  21. this behaves a single distinctive particle
    molecule
  22. uses chemical symbols and subscripts to describe the quantity of each type of atom present in the molecule
    chemical formula
  23. no uncertainty, whole numbers
    exact
  24. measurement numbers, have degree of uncertainty
    inexact
  25. all measurements have some degree of uncertainty or error, represented by
    significant figures
  26. used to describe very large or very small number
    scientific notation
  27. the limit of chemical subdivision for matter
    atom
  28. massive central core that contains protons and neutrons
    nucleus
  29. the same number of protons but different mass number the number of neutrons changes
    isotope
  30. is the relative mass of average atoms of an element
    atomic mass
  31. on periodic table going across the row
    period
  32. on periodic tabel go down the column
    groups
  33. what are the 8 groups on periodic table
    alkaline metals, alkaline earth metals, transition metals, other metals, metalloids, non metals, halogens, nobel gases
  34. attractive force that holds two or more atoms together
    chemical bond
  35. chemical bond formed through the transfer of electrons from one atom or group to another
    ionic bond
  36. chemical bond formed through the sharing of one or more electrons between two atoms
    covalent bond
  37. hold the metals together in a solid form
    metallic bond
  38. occur between a hydrogen atom and n o f
    hydrogen bond
  39. electrons in the outermost energy level of an element, they determine the bonding characteristics
    valance electrons
  40. symbols of the valance electrons for an element
    lewis dots
  41. atoms tend to gain/loose electrons to resemble a nobel gas, max of 8, metals typically loose electrons
    octet rule
  42. charged atoms that have the stability of a nobel gas
    ions
  43. positively charged loose an e-
    cation
  44. negatively charged gain an e-
    anion
  45. metal and non metal binary compound
    ionic bond
  46. two non metals binary molecular compound
    covalent bonding
  47. the more valance electrons around an element the greater the..
    electronegativity
  48. the bonding pair(s) of electrons is shared equally
    non polar covalent bonds
  49. the bonding pair(s) of electrons is shared unequally
    polar covalent bonds
  50. one atom gives up its electron to the other
    ionic bond
  51. covalently bonded atoms that carry a net charge
    polyatomic ions
  52. sum of the atomic masses of all atoms in a chemical formula
    formula mass
  53. 6.02x10^23, counting unit
    mole
  54. mass of substance, in grams, that is equal to the formula mass
    molar mass

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