lifespan ch 3

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brianklein
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236426
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lifespan ch 3
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2013-09-23 02:22:05
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lifespan psychology
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test 1
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  1. any agent that causes a birth defect.
    teratogen
  2. 3 factors that determine the impact of the teratogen
    • -dose
    • -genetic susceptibility
    • -time of exposure
  3. a fixed time period very early in development during which certain experiences or events can have long lasting effects on development
    critical period
  4. first period of prenatal development. takes place in the first two weeks of after conception. it includes the creation of the fertilized egg, cell division, and attatchment of the zygote on the uterine wall.
    germinal period
  5. the period of prenatal development that occurs two to eight weeks after conception. the rate of cell differentiation intensifies, support systems for the cells form and organs appear
    embryonic period
  6. lasting about seven months, the prenatal period between two months and birth. fetus becomes active.growth and development continue their dramatic course during this time.
    fetal period
  7. while the organs are being formed in this period they are (anatomically) especially vulnerable to environmental changes in the womb
    embryonic period
  8. are especially vulnerable physiologically during this period due to teratogens
    fetal period
  9. effect of caffeine drugs as teratogens
    increased risk of miscarriage
  10. risk of alcohol as teratogen
    • -fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD)
    •   -low level of intelligence and some are            mentally retarded. learning problems
  11. nicotine as a teratogen
    • -low birth weight
    • -respiratory problems
    • -cardiovascular problems
    • -development of adhd
  12. cocaine as a teratogen
    • -reduced birth weight, length, and head circumference
    • -lower arousal, less effective self regulation, higher excitability
    • -lower quality reflexes
    • -impaired motor development
    • -attention deficits
  13. meth as a teratogen
    • -high rate of infant mortality
    • -low birth weight
    • -developmental and behavioral problems
  14. pot as a teratogen
    -lower intelligence in children
  15. heroin as a teratogen
    -babies have withdrawls
  16. if the fetus' blood is Rh positive and the mother is Rh-negative, the mothers immune system may produce antibodies that will attack the fetus. can result in miscarriage, anemia, jaundice, heart defects, brain damage, etc
    incompatible blood types
  17. mens exposure to lead, radiation, certain pesticides, and petrochemicals may cause abnormalities in sperm that lead to miscarriage or diseases
    paternal factors
  18. increase in calories by ___ is satisfactory for a pregnancy
    300
  19. need a minimum of ____ ____ mcg to prevent spina bifida
    folic acid
  20. recommended weight gain during pregnancy
    25-40 pounds
  21. length of pregnancy in weeks
    about 38 to 42 weeks
  22. uterine contractions are 15 to 20 minutes apart and last up to 1 minute. the womans cervix stretches and opens. by the end of this stage contractions dilate the cervix to an opening of about 10 cm (4 inches). lasts 6-12 hours
    first stage
  23. the babys head starts to move through the cervix and the birth canal in this stage. by the time the babys head is out of the mothers body, the contractions come almost every minute and last for about a minute. lasts about 45 min to an hour
    second stage
  24. when the placenta, umbilical cord, and other membranes are detached and expelled.  lasts only minutes
    after birth
  25. this method of childbirth uses analgesia, anesthesia, an epidural block, or oxytocin
    medicated birth
  26. this method of birth attempts to reduce the mothers pain by decreasing her fear through education about childbirth and relaxation techniques during delivery. avoids medication.
    natural childbirth
  27. if the baby is in breech position a ____ ____ is performed by cutting an incision made in the mothers abdomen
    cesarean delivery
  28. babies born before the completion of 37 weeks of gestation
    pre mature infants
  29. babies that weigh less than 5 1/2 pounds at birth
    low birth weight infants
  30. two ways to respond (nurture) low birth weight and preterm infants
    kangaroo care and massage therapy
  31. skin to skin contact in which the baby, only wearing a diaper, is held upright against the parents bare chest for two to three hours per day.
    kangaroo care
  32. children with ___ ___ ____ are more likely than normal birth weight counterparts to develop a learning disability, adhd, or breathing problems. 50% of all low birth weight children are enrolled in special education programs
    low birth weight; risks of low birth weight and preterms
  33. small for gestational age infants, these infants birth weights are below normal when the length of pregnancy is considered. ___ ___ ___ infants may be preterm or full term
    small for date infants
  34. widely used method to assess the health of newborns at one and five minutes after birth. the _____ scale evaluates an infant's heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, body color, and reflex irritability. scale of one to two
    Apgar scale
  35. a measure that is used in the first month of life to assess the newborns neurological development reflexes, and reactions to people and objects.
    Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS)
  36. developed to assess the "at risk" infant. it is especially useful for evaluating preterm infants. provides another assessment of the newborns behavior, neurological and stress responses, and regulatory capacities
    Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS)
  37. characteristic of women who have such strong feelings of sadness, anxiety, or despair that they have trouble coping with daily tasks in the postpartum period
    postpartum depression
  38. period after childbirth when the mother adjusts, both physically and psychologically, to the process of childbirth. this period lasts for about six weeks or until her body has completed its adjustment and returned to a near prepregnant state
    postpartum period
  39. characterized by loss of sleep, dramatic changes in hormone production, uterus returning to its prepregnant size (involution)
    physical adjustments of postpartum period
  40. emotional fluctuations are common for mother in the postpartum period, emotion fluctuations decrease within several weeks after the delivery but other women experience more long lasting emotional swings
    emotional and psychological adjustments
  41. 70 percent of new mothers in the US have what is called ___ ____ about two to three days after birth. the feelings may come and go for several months after birth. usually go away after about two weeks.
    babeh blues.

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