SOC 200 chapter 3

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SOC 200 chapter 3
2013-09-23 11:44:11
SOC 200 03

notes from ch 3 powerpoint
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  1. the entire way of life for a group of people
  2. culture includes things such as?
    • language
    • standards of beauty
    • hand gestures
    • styles of dress
    • food
    • music
  3. culture is?
  4. culture is ____ fromĀ  one generation to the next through ______, not _____
    • passed
    • communication
    • genetics
  5. occurs when a person uses their own culture as a standard to evaluate another group or individual, leading to the view that cultures other than one's own are abnormal
  6. ex of ethnocentrism?
    • driving on "wrong" side of road
    • assume everyone handshakes as a greeting
    • eye contact
    • everyone speaks fluent english
    • personal hygiene
  7. the process of understanding other cultures on their own terms, rather than judging according to one's own culture
    cultural relativism
  8. what does cultural relativism celebrate?
    multicultural affairs
  9. when studying any group, it is important to try to employ cultural relativism because?
    it helps sociologists see others more objectively
  10. culture consists of 2 different categories?
    • material culture
    • symbolic culture
  11. includes the objects associated with a cultural group such as tools, machines, utensils, buildings and artwork
    material culture
  12. includes ways of thinking and ways of behaving
    symbolic culture
  13. in symbolic culture, ways of thinking?
    • beliefs
    • values
    • assumptions
  14. in symbolic culture, ways of behaving?
    • norms
    • interactions
    • communication
  15. beliefs?
  16. values?
  17. assumptions?
    assume words are universal
  18. one of the most important functions of symbolic culture?
    to allow us to communicate through signs, gestures and language
  19. used to meaningfully represent something else
  20. the signs that we make with our body
  21. ex of gestures?
    • hand gestures and facial expressions
    • **carry meaning
  22. ex of signs? aka symbols
    • traffic signal
    • product logo
  23. a system of communication using vocal sounds, gestures and written symbols
  24. components of culture?
    • signs
    • gestures
    • language
  25. the most significant component of culture because it allows us to communicate
  26. language shapes?
    • our communication
    • our perceptions of how we see things as well
  27. language will construct reality
    sapir-whorf hypothesis
  28. shared beliefs about what a group considers worthwhile or desirable
  29. the formal and informal rules regarding what kinds of behavior are acceptable and appropriate within a culture
  30. norms=
  31. values=
  32. norms are specific to a ?
    culture, time period and situation
  33. norms can either be ?
    formal or informal
  34. formal norms?
    • a law
    • rules of playing soccer
  35. informal norms?
    • not written down
    • unspoken
  36. change over time and place
  37. types of norms can also be distinguished by ?
    the strictness with which they are enforced
  38. a loosely enforced norm that involves common customs, practices, or procedures that ensure smooth social interaction and acceptance
  39. ex of a folkway?
    saying good game after a meet
  40. a norm that carries greater moral significance, is closely related to the core values of a group, and often involves severe repercussions for violaters
  41. deviance, helps us understand what more is
  42. mores =
    moral behavior
  43. a norm engrained so deeply that even thinking about violating it evokes strong feelings of disgust, horror or revulsion for most people
  44. positive or negative reactions to the ways that people follow or disobey norms, including rewards for conformity and punishments for norm violaters.
  45. sanctions help to establish?
    social control
  46. the formal and informal mechanisms used to increase conformity to values and norms and thus increase social cohesion
    social control
  47. values diverse racial, ethnic, national and linguistic backgrounds and so encourages the retention of cultural differences within society, rather than assimilation
  48. refers to the values, norms and practices of the group within society that is more powerful in terms of wealth, prestige, status and influence
    dominant culture
  49. a group within society that is differentiated by its distinctive values, norms and lifestyle
  50. a group within society that openly rejects and/or actively opposes society's values and norms
  51. cultures usually change?
    slowly and incrementally
  52. at times, a subculture can influence the mainstream and become part of a _____ culture, or something that is dominant can change to a _________
    • dominant
    • counterculture