SOC 200 chapter 3
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SOC 200 chapter 3
SOC 200 03
notes from ch 3 powerpoint
the entire way of life for a group of people
culture includes things such as?
standards of beauty
styles of dress
culture is ____ from one generation to the next through ______, not _____
occurs when a person uses their own culture as a standard to evaluate another group or individual, leading to the view that cultures other than one's own are abnormal
ex of ethnocentrism?
driving on "wrong" side of road
assume everyone handshakes as a greeting
everyone speaks fluent english
the process of understanding other cultures on their own terms, rather than judging according to one's own culture
what does cultural relativism celebrate?
when studying any group, it is important to try to employ cultural relativism because?
it helps sociologists see others more objectively
culture consists of 2 different categories?
includes the objects associated with a cultural group such as tools, machines, utensils, buildings and artwork
includes ways of thinking and ways of behaving
in symbolic culture, ways of thinking?
in symbolic culture, ways of behaving?
assume words are universal
one of the most important functions of symbolic culture?
to allow us to communicate through signs, gestures and language
used to meaningfully represent something else
the signs that we make with our body
ex of gestures?
hand gestures and facial expressions
ex of signs? aka symbols
a system of communication using vocal sounds, gestures and written symbols
components of culture?
the most significant component of culture because it allows us to communicate
our perceptions of how we see things as well
language will construct reality
shared beliefs about what a group considers worthwhile or desirable
the formal and informal rules regarding what kinds of behavior are acceptable and appropriate within a culture
norms are specific to a ?
culture, time period and situation
norms can either be ?
formal or informal
rules of playing soccer
not written down
change over time and place
types of norms can also be distinguished by ?
the strictness with which they are enforced
a loosely enforced norm that involves common customs, practices, or procedures that ensure smooth social interaction and acceptance
ex of a folkway?
saying good game after a meet
a norm that carries greater moral significance, is closely related to the core values of a group, and often involves severe repercussions for violaters
deviance, helps us understand what more is
a norm engrained so deeply that even thinking about violating it evokes strong feelings of disgust, horror or revulsion for most people
positive or negative reactions to the ways that people follow or disobey norms, including rewards for conformity and punishments for norm violaters.
sanctions help to establish?
the formal and informal mechanisms used to increase conformity to values and norms and thus increase social cohesion
values diverse racial, ethnic, national and linguistic backgrounds and so encourages the retention of cultural differences within society, rather than assimilation
refers to the values, norms and practices of the group within society that is more powerful in terms of wealth, prestige, status and influence
a group within society that is differentiated by its distinctive values, norms and lifestyle
a group within society that openly rejects and/or actively opposes society's values and norms
cultures usually change?
slowly and incrementally
at times, a subculture can influence the mainstream and become part of a _____ culture, or something that is dominant can change to a _________