Biology Chapter 1

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3alm001
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236525
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Biology Chapter 1
Updated:
2013-09-23 15:36:09
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Mastering Biology
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Chapter 1 of Mastering Biology and information from the book.
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  1. An organ, such as the liver, is made of?
    A.    Organs
    B.    Communities
    C.    Tissues
    D.    Populations
    C.    Tissues
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. Which of these is an organ system?
    A.     Stomach
    B.     Gamete
    C.     Dog
    D.     Digestive
    E.     Mucous
    D.     Digestive
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. What are the two main types of cells?
    A.     prokaryotes and eukaryotes
    B.     bacteria and eukaryotes
    C.     bacteria and archaea
    D.     plant and animal
    E.     bacteria and protists
    A.     prokaryotes and eukaryotes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. DNA is composed of building blocks called?
    A.     nucleic acids
    B.     Gs
    C.     nucleotides
    D.     amino acids
    E.     adenines
    C.     nucleotides
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. In eukaryotic cells DNA has the appearance of a?
    A.     letter U
    B.     triple helix
    C.     single strand
    D.     circle
    E.     double helix
    E.     double helix
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. Which of the following attributes is common to both prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells?
    A.     the use of proteins as the information storage molecule
    B.     membrane-enclosed nucleus
    C.     generally about the same size
    D.     the use of DNA as the information storage molecule
    E.     membrane-enclosed organelles
    D.     the use of DNA as the information storage molecule
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. Competition is central to the theory of natural selection. Why does competition occur?
    A.     Males must defend their territories.
    B.     Females must choose among possible mates.
    C.     Organisms are naturally antagonistic
    D.     Organisms typically produce too many offspring, and resources are limited.
    E.     All of the above
    D.     Organisms typically produce too many offspring, and resources are limited.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. In order for a hypothesis to be able to be used in science, which of the following must be true?     
    A.     It is testable and falsifiable.
    B.     It must be popularly accepted.
    C.     It represents established facts.
    D.     It must be reproducible.
    E.     It must be proven correct.
    A.     It is testable and falsifiable
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. Which of the following is true of a scientific theory?
    A.     It generates testable hypotheses, is supported by a large body of evidence, and is broad in scope.
    B.     It is only accepted after the person who came up with it has died.
    C.     It is formulated by many scientists over drinks at a convention.        
    D.     It must demonstrate the effect of one variable by testing control groups and experimental groups.
    E.     It is a method or device that applies scientific knowledge for some specific purpose.        
    A.     It generates testable hypotheses, is supported by a large body of evidence, and is broad in scope.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. In animal populations, DDT causes?
    A.     sleeping sickness
    B.     the flu
    C.     birth defects
    D.     malaria
    E.     tuberculosis
    C.     birth defects
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. DDT is _____-soluble so it accumulates in _____.
    A.     fat... milk
    B.     water... streams
    C.     water... oceans
    D.     water ... milk
    E.     streams... fat
    A.     fat...milk
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. Which one of the following statements is true?    
    A.     DDT cannot accumulate in the fat of animals.
    B.     Cost was a major factor in the United States government's decision to ban DDT.
    C.     The DDT ban in the United States has made it very difficult to control agricultural insect pests.
    D.     DDT does not help prevent disease from passing from agricultural animals to humans.        
    E.     Many African governments concluded that the potential long-term health effects of DDT were not as serious as the immediate problem of insect control.        
    E.     Many African governments concluded that the potential long-term health effects of DDT were not as serious as the immediate problem of insect control.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. The universal genetic language of DNA is common to virtually all organisms on Earth, however diverse. What is the best explanation for this fact?
    A.     The universal nature of the genetic language of DNA is due to coincidence.
    B.     The universal genetic language is explained by the chemistry of DNA and proteins.
    C.     All living things share a common genetic language of DNA because they share a common ancestry.
    C.     All living things share a common genetic language of DNA because they share a common ancestry.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. Select the correct statement about the process of scientific inquiry.
    A.      If the results of an experiment do not support the hypothesis that is tested, the experiment is badly designed.
    B.     The goal of scientific research is to prove the stated hypothesis.
    C.    It is possible to test hypotheses, such as those involving historical events, without conducting experiments.
    C.    It is possible to test hypotheses, such as those involving historical events, without conducting experiments.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. Which of the following is a correct match of cell type with structure?
    A.      skin cell ... has long extensions
    B.     intestinal cell ... closely joined
    C.     skin cell ... has a large volume
    D.     muscle cells ... has proteins that slide back and forth
    E.     nerve cell ... closely joined
    D.     muscle cells ... has proteins that slide back and forth
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. What is the correct order for the hierarchy of biological organization from the least to the most complex?
    A.     molecule, organelle, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism, ecosystem, community, population
    B.     molecule, organelle, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism, population, community, ecosystem
    C.     molecule, cell, tissue, organelle, organ, organ system, organism, population, community, ecosystem
    D.     molecule, organelle, tissue, cell, organ, organ system, organism, population, community, ecosystem
    E.     molecule, organelle, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism, population, ecosystem, community
    B.     molecule, organelle, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism, population, community, ecosystem
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. No amino acid molecule by itself can speed up or catalyze reactions between other molecules; however, when amino acids are joined together to make a protein with catalytic properties, the new structure (enzymatic protein) can speed up the rate of a specific chemical reaction. What does this illustrate?
    A.     the summation theory
    B.     the complexity/simplicity paradox
    C.     polymer duality
    D.     emergent properties
    E.     energy flow, processing, and utilization
    D.     emergent properties
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. Which of the following statements is true about chemical nutrients in an ecosystem
    A.     They flow through the system, losing some nutrients in the process.
    B.     They cannot be obtained from decomposition.
    C.     They depend on sunlight as their source.
    D.      They exit the ecosystem in the form of heat.
    E.     They recycle within the ecosystem, being constantly reused.
    E.     They recycle within the ecosystem, being constantly reused.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. Which taxonomic domain includes multicellular photosynthetic organisms?
    A.     Archaea
    B.     Bacteria
    C.     Eukarya
    D.     Plantae
    E.     Fungi
    C.     Eukarya
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. Which of the following is an example of "unity in diversity"?
    A.     All organisms, including prokaryotes and eukaryotes, use essentially the same genetic code.
    B.     Cilia and flagella in all eukaryotes have the same basic structure.
    C.     The forelimbs of all mammals have the same basic structure, modified for different environments.
    D.     The structure of DNA is the same in all organisms.
    E.      All of the above are correct.
    E.      All of the above are correct.
  21. Which of the following statements is not true of scientific experiments?
    A.     They yield useful results regardless of whether the hypothesis is supported or rejected.
    B.     They must be well documented.
    C.     They must occur under carefully controlled conditions found in a laboratory.
    C.     They must occur under carefully controlled conditions found in a laboratory.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. In an experiment, investigators try to control all of the variables except one—the one that tests the hypothesis. Which of the following reasons is the primary rationale for controlling variables in an experiment?
    A.     To create a control group
    B.     To enable investigators to repeat the test
    C.     To eliminate alternative explanations for the results of an experiment
    C.     To eliminate alternative explanations for the results of an experiment
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. Which of the following statements could not be supported or rejected by a scientific experiment?
    A.     College students think football is more fun to watch than baseball.
    B.     The first living cell on Earth came from outer space
    C.     Grass is green because it contains chlorophyll.
    B.     The first living cell on Earth came from outer space
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. Which of the following statements is true of a hypothesis?
    A.     A hypothesis can be supported or rejected through experimentation.
    B.     A hypothesis can be proved.
    A.     A hypothesis can be supported or rejected through experimentation.
  25. Which of the following variables did Pasteur change in his experiment to test the hypothesis of spontaneous generation?
    A.     The shape of the flask.
    B.     The length of time that the broth was boiled.
    C.     The broth used in each flask.
    D.     The length of time that the flasks were allowed to sit before being sampled for organisms.
    A.     The shape of the flask.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. In Pasteur's experiment to test the hypothesis of spontaneous generation, why did he boil the broth in both flasks?
    A.     To kill any existing organisms in the broth
    B.     To provide nutrients to stimulate the growth of microorganisms
    C.     To attract dust particles to each flask
    D.     To expose the broth to a source of organisms
    A.     To kill any existing organisms in the broth
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. All the organisms on your campus make up
    A.     a population.
    B.     a taxonomic domain.
    C.     an ecosystem.
    D.     a community.
    E.      an experimental group.
    D.     a community.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. Which of the following is a correct sequence of levels in life's hierarchy, proceeding downward from an individual animal?
    A.     brain, organ system, nerve cell, nervous tissue
    B.      organ system, nervous tissue, brain
    C.     organ system, tissue, molecule, cell
    D.     nervous system, brain, nervous tissue, nerve cell
    E.     organism, organ system, tissue, cell, organ
    D.     nervous system, brain, nervous tissue, nerve cell
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. Which of the following is not an observation or inference on which Darwin's theory of natural selection is based?
    A.     Individuals whose inherited characteristics best fit them to the environment will generally produce more offspring.
    B.     There is heritable variation among individuals.
    C.     Because of overproduction of offspring, there is competition for limited resources.
    D.     A population can become adapted to its environment over time.
    E.     Poorly adapted individuals never produce offspring.
    E.     Poorly adapted individuals never produce offspring.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. Systems biology is mainly an attempt to
    A.     build high-throughput machines for the rapid acquisition of biological data.
    B.     analyze genomes from different species.
    C.     simplify complex problems by reducing the system into smaller, less complex units.
    D.     speed up the technological application of scientific­knowledge.
    E.     understand the behavior of entire biological systems.
    E.     understand the behavior of entire biological systems.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. Protists and bacteria are grouped into different domains because
    A.     bacteria are not made of cells.
    B.     protists eat bacteria.
    C.     bacteria decompose protists.
    D.     protists have a membrane-bounded nucleus, which bacterial cells lack.
    E.     protists are photosynthetic.
    D.     protists have a membrane-bounded nucleus, which bacterial cells lack.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. Which of the following best demonstrates the unity among all organisms?
    A.     the structure and function of DNA
    B.     natural selection
    C.     matching DNA nucleotide sequences
    D.     descent with modification
    E.     emergent properties 
    A.     the structure and function of DNA
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. A controlled experiment is one that
    A.     tests experimental and control groups in parallel.
    B.     is repeated many times to make sure the results are accurate.
    C.     keeps all variables constant.
    D.     proceeds slowly enough that a scientist can make careful records of the results.
    E.     is supervised by an experienced scientist.
    A.     tests experimental and control groups in parallel.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. Which of the following statements best distinguishes ­hypotheses from theories in science?
    A.     Hypotheses usually are relatively narrow in scope; theories have broad explanatory power.
    B.     Hypotheses and theories are essentially the same thing.
    C.     Theories are hypotheses that have been proved.
    D.     Theories are proved true; hypotheses are often falsified.
    E.     Hypotheses are guesses; theories are correct answers.
    A.     Hypotheses usually are relatively narrow in scope; theories have broad explanatory power.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. Which of the following is an example of qualitative data?
    A.      The plant's height is 25 centimeters (cm).
    B.     The fish swam in a zigzag motion.
    C.     The six pairs of robins hatched an average of three chicks.
    D.     The contents of the stomach are mixed every 20 seconds.
    E.     The temperature decreased from 20°C to 15°C.
    B.     The fish swam in a zigzag motion.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. Which of the following best describes the logic of scientific inquiry?
    A.     If my observations are accurate, they will support my ­hypothesis.
    B.     If my prediction is correct, it will lead to a testable ­hypothesis.
    C.     If I generate a testable hypothesis, tests and observations will support it.
    D.     If my hypothesis is correct, I can expect certain test results.
    E.     If my experiments are set up right, they will lead to a testable hypothesis.
    D.     If my hypothesis is correct, I can expect certain test results.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. Which example illustrates a property that emerges at the community level?
    A.     Metabolic cooperation between prokaryotic cells forms a biofilm that allows bacterial colonies to transport nutrients and wastes. Biofilms may damage industrial equipment or cause tooth decay.
    B.     Photosynthesis takes place only when pigment molecules are arranged in a specific way in an intact chloroplast.
    C.     Nitrogen cycling is the process by which nitrogen from the atmosphere and decomposed organic material are converted by soil bacteria to compounds that can be assimilated by plants.
    A.     Metabolic cooperation between prokaryotic cells forms a biofilm that allows bacterial colonies to transport nutrients and wastes. Biofilms may damage industrial equipment or cause tooth decay.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. Select the most accurate statement about the interaction between a tree and its physical environment.
    A.     A tree alters its physical environment.
    B.     A tree and its physical environment alter each other.
    C.     A tree is affected by its physical environment. 
    B.     A tree and its physical environment alter each other.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. Which of these examples illustrates inductive reasoning?
    A.     You learned in elementary school that as temperature drops, liquids change into solid form. You are given an unfamiliar liquid and hypothesize that it will become solid if you put it in the freezer.
    B.     You come down with the flu after you pretended to be sick so you could skip work to attend a concert. Now you decide that fate always punishes you for bad behavior.
    C.     You and your roommate both drank two cups of coffee before an exam, and both of you got a better than average mark on the exam. You hypothesize that coffee drinking improves academic performance.
    B.     You come down with the flu after you pretended to be sick so you could skip work to attend a concert. Now you decide that fate always punishes you for bad behavior.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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