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All land plants share a single common ancestor....
A type of green algae charophyte that is still a mystery
What are the two types of green algae and how do they differ?
- Chlorophyta- aquatic
- Charophyta - sister to all land plants
Name the four traits that charophytes share with land plants
- 1. Rings of cellulose-synthesising proteins
- 2. peroxisome enzymes (break down peroxide)
- 3. structure of flagellated sperm is very similar
- 4. formation of a pharagmoplast
What are the four key traits of land plants?
- 1. Alternation of generations and protected embryos
- 2. walled spores produced in sporangia3. multicellular gametangia (archaegonia=female; antheridia=male)
- 4. apical meristems
female gametangia of land plants
male gametangia of land plants
localized regions of cell division at the tips of roots and shoots
How do land plants deal with having limited water availability?
- They have waxy cuticle on exposed surfaces to help prevent water loss
- Exchange gases via stomata
- Tracheids are specialized for water and mineral transport
True or False: Land plants have both diploid and haploid generations
The diploid generation of land plants is known as:
The haploid generation of land plants is known as:
What does Haplodiplontic mean?
- A cycle that produces an alternation of generations in land plants
- Sporophyte (diploid)
- Gametophyte (haploid)
Which generation (gametophyte/sporophyte) is more prominent in mosses, liverworts and ferns?
the Gametophyte generation
Which generation (gametophyte/sporophyte) is more prominent in gymnosperms and angiosperms?
What is the dominant gametophyte generation?
- Dominant gametophyte generatioin
- NON-VASCULAR PLANTS
What are 5 traits of bryophytes?
- closest living descendants of the first land plants
- include liverworts, mosses, hornworts
- non-tracheophytes; they have no tracheids
- have other conducting cells for moving water and nutrients
- Many bryophytes have mycorrhizal associations-symbiotic relationship between fungi and plants
Which group contains the closest living descendants of the first land plants?
(this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
Bryophytes include which species?
Are bryophytes vascular or non-vascular?
Which of the following type(s) of bryophytes are non-photosynthetic?
What do liverworts and mosses have in common?
- Both are non-photosynthetic
- Sporophyte that depends on the gametophyte for nutrients
Characteristics of liverworts?
- ancient phylum
- flattened gametophytes with flattened lobes that look like liver
- produce upright structures that contain gametangia
Characteristics of mosses?
- Alternation of generations
- can withstand droughts
- stomata close in hot, dry conditions thereby minimizing water loss
- have rhizoids (root like structures)
- most mosses highly sensitive to air pollution
- peat moss can absorb up to 25 times their weight
Which of the bryophytes has rhizoids?
structures found on some plants (like moss) that close in dry conditions to minimize water loss
True or false: Moss have xylum
FALSE. They have water conducting tissues, but NOT xylum
Peat moss can absorb up to ____ times its weight in water
Characteristics of Hornworts:
- Stomata in sporophyte open and close to regulate gas exchange
Which type of bryophyte has stomata in the sporophyte that close to regulate gas exchange?
Which of the bryophytes is photosynthetic?
Why is moss so important?
- Help retain nitrogen in the soil
- mosses can live in very cold or dry areas because they can lose most of their body water then rehydrate when moisture is available.
- Sphagnum or peat moss does not readily decay
What are 4 significant features of Sphagnum (peat moss)?
- Does not readily decay
- Used as a fuel source in Ireland and Canada
- Used as a soil conditioner
- Peatlands contain roughly 30%of the world's soil carbon
_____ does not readily decay. Low temperatures, lower pH, and oxygen level of ___ lands have preserved corpses for thousands of years!
- Sphagnum (peat moss)
Tracheophyte Plants have what three characteristics?
Roots, stems, and leaves
_____ is the first known vascular land plant. To which clad does it belong?
What type of tissue allows for distribution of nutrients in most plants?
Vasular land plants contain two types of vascular tissues:
conducts water and minerals from roots (only one direction-up)
conducts sucrose and hormones (multi-directional)
In which region of the plant does vascular tissue develop?
Vacular tissue develops in the sporophyte
Vascular plants have a reduced (sporophyte/gametophyte)
What are the three clades of vascular plants? (LSP)
- Seed plants (gymnosperm/angiosperm)
What came first: the stem or the root?
What purpose do the roots serve?
Structural support and transport capability
Leaves evolved (only/more than) once.
More than once
Why is it believed that plants evolved more than once?
- Lycophytes have no vascularization in their leaves
- But ferns and seed plants have true leaves
Which clade in vascular plants conatin plants with no vascularization in their leaves?
_____ are another innovation of some phyla.
What is the purpose of seeds?
- Protect embryo from drying out
- Protection from predators
What is the dominant sporophyte generation of the vascular clades?
_____ were the first plants to have a dominant sporophyte generation
Name plants that are classified as Pterophytes
- whisk ferns
What is the big distinction between pterophytes and lycophytes?
Pterophytes require water for fertlization and are seedless
From the pterophyte group, ____lose their roots and leaves secondarily
Whisk ferns. (whisk! whisk!)
_______ have jointed stems with brush-like leaves. The stems have silica deposits in epidermal cells of their ribs.
____ from the group Pterophyte have fronds and bear sori.
What are sori?
Sporangia located on the underside of fern fronds
In ferns, the gametophyte is ______ shaped and can do what?
Heart shaped; can live independently
(Phloem/Xylum) conducts sucrose and hormones, in what direction?
Which vascular body conducts water? And in which direction(s)?