Chapter 29: Plant Diversity I

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Chapter 29: Plant Diversity I
2013-09-25 21:26:38

How Plants Colonized Land
Show Answers:

  1. All land plants share a single common ancestor....
    A type of green algae charophyte that is still a mystery
  2. What are the two types of green algae and how do they differ?
    • Chlorophyta- aquatic
    • Charophyta - sister to all land plants
  3. Name the four traits that charophytes share with land plants
    • 1. Rings of cellulose-synthesising proteins
    • 2. peroxisome enzymes (break down peroxide)
    • 3. structure of flagellated sperm is very similar
    • 4. formation of a pharagmoplast
  4. What are the four key traits of land plants?
    • 1. Alternation of generations and protected embryos
    • 2. walled spores produced in sporangia
    • 3. multicellular gametangia (archaegonia=female; antheridia=male)
    • 4. apical meristems
  5. Archaegonia
    female gametangia of land plants
  6. Antheridia
    male gametangia of land plants
  7. Apical Meristems:
    localized regions of cell division at the tips of roots and shoots
  8. How do land plants deal with having limited water availability?
    • They have waxy cuticle on exposed surfaces to help prevent water loss
    • Exchange gases via stomata
    • Tracheids are specialized for water and mineral transport
  9. True or False: Land plants have both diploid and haploid generations
  10. The diploid generation of land plants is known as:
  11. The haploid generation of land plants is known as:
  12. What does Haplodiplontic mean?
    • A cycle that produces an alternation of generations in land plants
    • Sporophyte (diploid)
    • Gametophyte (haploid)
  13. Which generation (gametophyte/sporophyte) is more prominent in mosses, liverworts and ferns?
    the Gametophyte generation
  14. Which generation (gametophyte/sporophyte) is more prominent in gymnosperms and angiosperms?
    Sporophyte generation
  15. What is the dominant gametophyte generation?
  16. Bryophytes
    • Dominant gametophyte generatioin
  17. What are 5 traits of bryophytes?
    • closest living descendants of the first land plants
    • include liverworts, mosses, hornworts
    • non-tracheophytes; they have no tracheids
    • have other conducting cells for moving water and nutrients
    • Many bryophytes have mycorrhizal associations-symbiotic relationship between fungi and plants
  18. Which group contains the closest living descendants of the first land plants?
    A. Bryophytes
    B. Lycophytes
    C. Pterophytes
    D. Tracheophytes
    A. Bryophytes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. Bryophytes include which species?
    • Liverworts
    • Mosses
    • Hornworts
  20. Are bryophytes vascular or non-vascular?
  21. Which of the following type(s) of bryophytes are non-photosynthetic?
    a. liverworts
    b. mosses
    c. hornworts
    • a. liverworts
    • b. mosses
  22. What do liverworts and mosses have in common?
    • Both are non-photosynthetic
    • Sporophyte that depends on the gametophyte for nutrients
  23. Characteristics of liverworts?
    • ancient phylum
    • flattened gametophytes with flattened lobes that look like liver
    • produce upright structures that contain gametangia
  24. Characteristics of mosses?
    • Alternation of generations
    • can withstand droughts
    • stomata close in hot, dry conditions thereby minimizing water loss
    • have rhizoids (root like structures)
    • most mosses highly sensitive to air pollution
    • peat moss can absorb up to 25 times their weight
  25. Which of the bryophytes has rhizoids?
  26. Define stomata:
    structures found on some plants (like moss) that close in dry conditions to minimize water loss
  27. True or false: Moss have xylum
    FALSE. They have water conducting tissues, but NOT xylum
  28. Peat moss can absorb up to ____ times its weight in water
    25 times!
  29. Characteristics of Hornworts:
    • Stomata in sporophyte open and close to regulate gas exchange
    • photosynthetic
  30. Which type of bryophyte has stomata in the sporophyte that close to regulate gas exchange?
  31. Which of the bryophytes is photosynthetic?
  32. Why is moss so important?
    • Help retain nitrogen in the soil
    • mosses can live in very cold or dry areas because they can lose most of their body water then rehydrate when moisture is available.
    • Sphagnum or peat moss does not readily decay
  33. What are 4 significant features of Sphagnum (peat moss)?
    • Does not readily decay
    • Used as a fuel source in Ireland and Canada
    • Used as a soil conditioner
    • Peatlands contain roughly 30%of the world's soil carbon
  34. _____ does not readily decay. Low temperatures, lower pH, and oxygen level of ___ lands have preserved corpses for thousands of years!
    • Sphagnum (peat moss)
    • peat-lands
  35. Tracheophyte Plants have what three characteristics?
    Roots, stems, and leaves
  36. _____ is the first known vascular land plant. To which clad does it belong?

  37. What type of tissue allows for distribution of nutrients in most plants?
    Vascular tissue
  38. Vasular land plants contain two types of vascular tissues:
    • xylem
    • phloem
  39. Xylem
    conducts water and minerals from roots (only one direction-up)
  40. Phloem
    conducts sucrose and hormones (multi-directional)
  41. In which region of the plant does vascular tissue develop?
    Vacular tissue develops in the sporophyte
  42. Vascular plants have a reduced (sporophyte/gametophyte)
  43. What are the three clades of vascular plants? (LSP)
    • Lycophytes
    • Pterophytes
    • Seed plants (gymnosperm/angiosperm)
  44. What came first: the stem or the root?
    The Stem!
  45. What purpose do the roots serve?
    Structural support and transport capability
  46. Leaves evolved (only/more than) once.
    More than once
  47. Why is it believed that plants evolved more than once?
    • Lycophytes have no vascularization in their leaves
    • But ferns and seed plants have true leaves
  48. Which clade in vascular plants conatin plants with no vascularization in their leaves?
  49. _____ are another innovation of some phyla.
  50. What is the purpose of seeds?
    • Protect embryo from drying out
    • Protection from predators
  51. What is the dominant sporophyte generation of the vascular clades?
  52. _____ were the first plants to have a dominant sporophyte generation
  53. Name plants that are classified as Pterophytes
    • Ferns
    • horsetails
    • whisk ferns
  54. What is the big distinction between pterophytes and lycophytes?
    Pterophytes require water for fertlization and are seedless
  55. From the pterophyte group, ____lose their roots and leaves secondarily
    Whisk ferns. (whisk! whisk!)
  56. _______ have jointed stems with brush-like leaves. The stems have silica deposits in epidermal cells of their ribs.
  57. ____ from the group Pterophyte have fronds and bear sori.
  58. What are sori?
    Sporangia located on the underside of fern fronds
  59. In ferns, the gametophyte is ______ shaped and can do what?
    Heart shaped; can live independently
  60. (Phloem/Xylum) conducts sucrose and hormones, in what direction?
    • Phloem
    • Multi-directional
  61. Which vascular body conducts water? And in which direction(s)?