Biology 1

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Biology 1
2010-06-15 15:12:11

Biology questions for the mcat
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  1. Net ATP produced in glycolysis followed by TCA followed by ETC
  2. Net ATP produced in glycolysis followed by fermentation (anaerobic)
  3. Pathway for ACE inhibitors and ACE
    • 1. kidneys secrete renin when bp is low
    • 2. renin cleaves angiotensinogen to angiotensin 1
    • 3. angiotensin 1 is converted to angiotensin 2 by ACE
    • 4. angiotensin two stimulates the production of aldosterone which allows more Na to enter the blood
    • 5. more water is then allowed to enter the blood due to osmotic potential and the bp increases
    • (ACE inhibitors block ACE from working)
  4. pepsinogen
    stomach enzyme that is converted to pepsin by HCl
  5. factors that affect enzyme activity (4)
    • 1. pH
    • 2. concentration of substrates or enzyme
    • 3. temperature
    • 4. cofactors
  6. At higher temperatures, enzymes tend to work......
  7. at extremely high temperatures, enzymes are __________
  8. As substrate concentration increases but enzyme concentration stays the same
    rate of reaction will go up and then eventually level off because no matter how much more substrate you add, the enzyme can only work so fast at a constant concentration
  9. humans have ____ pairs of chromosomes
  10. humans have ____ chromosomes (not pairs)
  11. in the gametes of humans, there are ___ chromosomes total (not pairs, # of chromosomes)
  12. In cell cycle... G1
    part of interphase..... cells get bigger, produce RNA and synthesize protein
  13. In cell cycle.... S phase
    part of interphase...... DNA gets repicated so it goes from single stranded to double stranded
  14. In cell cycle..... G2 phase
    Cell growth, preparing for mitosis..... also part of interphase
  15. G0 phase of cell cycle
    no cell division or growth
  16. M phase of cell cycle
    cellular division, mitosis, PMAT
  17. prophase
    nucleolus disappears, chromatin condenses into chromosomes
  18. prometaphase
    nuclear envelope disappears, mitotic spindle fibers elongate from the centrosomes and attach to kinetichores
  19. metaphase
    spindle fibers align the chromatids
  20. anaphase
    spindle fibers shorten and the kinetochores are pulled apart to separate the sister chromatid
  21. telophase
    sister chromatid reach the cell poles on each side and spindle fibers disappear
  22. kinetochores
    protein bundled at the centromere on the chromosomes where sister chromatids are joined
  23. cytokinesis
    cell cleavage performed by a contractile ring (in animal cells) that creates a cleavage furrow and separates the two daughter cells
  24. In oogenesis how many polar bodies and viable eggs are formed from one oogonium?
    2 polar bodies, and one ovum (one polar body after meiosis 1 and one polar body after meiosis 2)
  25. spermatogenesis of one spermatogonium (2n) results in how many sperm cells?
    4 (n cells)
  26. sperm and egg come together in the ______
  27. what does the zygote become?
    a morula, then a blastula (hollow inside of the ball of cells), then a pocket forms and the mesoderm is the inside of the ball, the ectoderm is the outside of the ball and the place where the pocket forms will become the endoderm, then forms gastrula (all 3 layers are in this, then the neurula
  28. When does implantation in the uterus occur?
    When the cells are a blastula (hollow ball of cells) that attaches to the uterine wall
  29. What are the 3 layers of the gastrula?
    ectoderm endoderm mesoderm
  30. Endoderm forms.....
    lining of g.i. tract, lungs, liver pancreas.
  31. Ectoderm forms......
    lens of the eye, skin, inner ear, nervous system
  32. Mesoderm forms.....
    muscles, skeleton, circulation, gonads, and kidneys
  33. What does the placenta do?
    exchange of food, oxygen, waste and water between mother and fetus
  34. What does the amnion do?
    Cushions the developing fetus (water layer)
  35. What does the umbilical cord do?
    Attaches embryo to placenta
  36. What is the chorion?
    The membrane that surrounds the amnion
  37. Where is the blood that goes to the fetus oxygenated?
    In the placenta
  38. What is the ductus venosus and what does it do?
    It is a shunt in fetuses that shunts blood from the umbilical vein directly to the inferior vena cava so that blood does not go to the liver.
  39. What is the foramen ovale and what does it do?
    A shunt in the developing fetus that allows blood to flow directly from the right atrium to the left atrium.
  40. What is the ductus arteriosis and what does it do?
    It is a shunt in the heart of the developing fetus and it allows blood to go directly from the pulmonary artery to the aortic arch in the fetus so most of the blood from the right ventricle will not go to the lungs (as it does in an adult). This is helpful because the lungs of the fetus are filled with fluid, not oxygen.
  41. Does fetal or maternal hemoglobin have a higher affinity for oxygen?
  42. Where does CO2 and O2 exchange take place for the fetus?
    At the placenta
  43. What does a person with blood type A have? who can they donate blood to? Who can they receive blood from?
    • A antigen,
    • B antibody,
    • can donate to A or AB people
    • can receive blood from O or A people
  44. What does a person with blood type AB have? who can they donate blood to? Who can they receive blood from?
    • A and B antigens,
    • no antibodies,
    • can donate to AB people only
    • can receive blood from anyone
  45. What does a person with blood type AB have? who can they donate blood to? Who can they receive blood from?
    • no antigens,
    • A and B antibodies,
    • can donate to anyone
    • can receive blood from only O people
  46. protein coat that surrounds viruses ______
  47. viruses genetic information can be _______
    DNA or RNA
  48. viruses that only infect bacteria
  49. Bacteria reproduce by
    binary fission