Chapter 1-5

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a_m_bowens
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Chapter 1-5
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1-5
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    • author "a_m_bowens"
    • tags "Chapter test"
    • description "test questions"
    • fileName "Chapter 1-5 Test.txt"
    • freezingBlueDBID -1.0
    • Mg
    • Atomic Number and neutron
    • Magnesium
    • 12
    • 12
  1. S
    Atomic Number and neutron
    • Sulfur
    • 16
    • 16
  2. C
    Atomic Number and neutron
    • Carbon
    • 6
    • 6
  3. K
    Atomic Number and neutron
    • Potassium
    • 19
    • 20
  4. Fe
    Atomic Number and neutron
    • Iron
    • 26
    • 30
  5. Na
    Atomic Number and neutron
    • Sodium
    • 11
    • 12
  6. P
    Atomic Number and neutron
    • phosphorus
    • 15
    • 16
  7. O
    Atomic Number and neutron
    • Oxygen
    • 8
    • 8
  8. N
    • Nitrogen
    • 7
    • 7
  9. H
    • Hydrogen
    • 1
    • 0
  10. Ca
    • Calcium
    • 20
    • 20
  11. I
    • Iodine
    • 53
    • 77
  12. Carbonyl
    Carbon atom joined to an oxygen double bonded.
  13. carboxyl
    • Oxygen is double bonded to carbon atom that is bonded to a OH
  14. Order
    The close-up of a Sunflower illustrates the highly order structure that Characterizes life
  15. Response to the environment
    Venus flytrap Closed its trap in responseto. the environmental Stimulus of a damsel landing in it.
  16. Evolution adaption
    The pygmy Sea horse is Camouflage in its environment
  17. Reproduction
    living things reproduce their own
  18. Regulation
    bird obtain Food, uses the chemical in The food to power flight and other worK.
  19. Growth and development
    IN her Heel information Carried by genes.
  20. How energy flows through the ecosystem and nutrients cycle
    • light, Chemical, and heat (energy flow)
    • Abiotic(not livingthings) >Producers(Plants)>Consumers>Decomposers>Abiotic(This is nutrient Cycle)
  21. List the ComponentsOf biological Organization Smallest to largest,
    organ and organ System, tissue, cells, organelles, and molecules.
  22. Explain homeootasls and its importance to organisms
    • The abilty to maintain relatively Stable interal environment in a ever-changing outside world
    • •we must keep our bodies a certain Tempertue (a proper balance.) in order to survive
    • ° negtive and positive feedback
  23. Homeostais Control Mechanism
    receptor,control center, and effecter.
  24. Receptor
    • gather information about the Condition in the body.
    • • your body is getting to hot.
  25. Control center
    recieve the information from the receptor and tells the effecter the Appropriate action to take
  26. Effector
    Take action does what the Control center tells it to do
  27. Positive feedback
    • The end product speeds up its own production. the output enhances or exaggerates the orgnal stimilus.
    • • Blood clotting,child birth, and sexual arrousal.
  28. negative Feedback
    • System Conditions are returned to normal. An accumulation of an end product Slows down its Process that produces it products.
    • • When a cell makes to Much of something it stops making it.
  29. Process of science
    attempt to understand attempt to understand how natural Phenomena work Using a process of inquiry
  30. Quantitative Data
    recorded as measurements
  31. Qualitative data
    recorded descriptions
  32. inductive reasoning
    • large number of Specific observation
    • • the sun always rises in the
  33. deductive reasoning
    used after the hypothesis has been developed. It involves logic that flows in the opposite direction.
  34. Describe the Characterics of a hypothesis
    • •Testable
    • •Falseable
  35. Questions that can be answered by a Scientist
    • •Well defined and testable
    • • measureable and controllable
    • • Can be answered by during experiments
  36. why is water polar? Why do it form bonds with otherwater molecules?
    oxygen in water is partial negative. Hydrogen is partial Positive. Hydrogen is attracted to the Partial negtiue of oxygen. Oxygen is attracted to the Partial Postive of the hydrogen. Hydrogen bonding
  37. Control group
    • Does not receive a treatment or receives a Standard level of treatment (fake drug)
    • • Are for Comparing
    • • allows the Scientist to Cancel the effect of unwanted Variables.
  38. Independent group
    • what I do, what I Manipulate
    • • located on the x-axis
  39. Dependent Variable
    • Will be measured Counted or observed in response to the experiment conditions
    • • requires observation Analysis from data
    • • Can be measured,
    • • Locate on y-axis(Vertical)
    • • has to do time, years, etc
    • • The data you collect
  40. Design an experiment dealing with Control groups independent group
    ?Use a graph
  41. 4 characteristics of water that result from hydrogen bonding
    ?
  42. Distinguish between solute, solution, and Solvent
    ?
  43. Experimental Group
    Can recieve treatment
  44. Double Blind study
    • No one Knows what group they are in
    • • experimental group
    • • Controlled group
  45. Saturated Fatty acid
    • • Has No double Bonds
    • • It is straight
  46. Covalent bonds
    The sharing of a pair of Valence electrons
  47. single bond
    a pair of shared electrons
  48. double bond
    Two Pairs of Valence electrons
  49. nonpolar Covalent bonds
    The electrons are shared equally because the two atoms have the Same electronegativity
  50. Polar Covalent bonds
    the electrons of a bond are not shaved equally • water molecule
  51. Ionic Bond
    Cations (+) and anions (-) attract each other that Leads to tnis Kind of bond.
  52. Weak Chemical bonds
    • hydrogen bonds • van der Waals interactions
  53. polar molecule
    water
  54. emergent properties Of Water
    • 1. Cohesion
    • 2.Temperture
    • 3. Heat
    • 4. Solvent
  55. Classifying Diversity Of life (Groping Species)
    • Dear Domain
    • King Kingdom
    • Phillip Phylum
    • Came Class
    • Over Order
    • for Family
    • great Genus
    • steak Species
  56. Bilogical Organization (smallest to largest)
    • 1. atom
    • 2. molecule
    • 3. organelle
    • 4. Cell
    • 5. tissue
    • 6. organ
    • 7. organ system
    • 8. organism
    • 9. Population
    • 10. Community
    • 11. population
    • 12. ecosystem
    • 13. Biosphere
  57. Properties of life
    • 1. order
    • 2. Regulation
    • 3. evolutionary adaption
    • 4. Response to the environment
    • 5. Reproduction
    • 6. Growth and development
    • 7. Energy processing
  58. Explain how the Properties of water explain the following.

    A. Fish Survive in lakes during winter in Alaska
    B. NaCl and Sucrose dissolve in water
    C . A meniscus forms . Water is added to a glass graduated cylinder .
    D. sweating help cools the body
    E. Water in oil in a beaker do not Mix
    F. Water dropped onto a lab bench forms a rounded drove or bend.
    G,Paper and Cotton towels Soak in water to dry a surface
    A: Water Freezes to ice, which floats to the top of the lake. The layer of ice acts as insulation and keeps the Underlying water warm.

    • B. The oxgen of water is negatively charged and are
    • attached to sodium cantions. The hydrogen of the water are Positive and attracted to the chloride anions. AS a result water Molecules surround the indivduals Sodium and Chloride ions separating them from one another.

    C. water is polar. Glass is polar, polar Sticks together


    • D.Water draws heat from the Surface of the skin, whiche evaporates which cools us down.
    • (evaporative Cooling)

    E.water is polar, oil is non polar

    F. Because water has a high level of surface tension.

    G.Because they are Polar.




    F.
  59. What is the approximate ratio of C,H,O, in a Carbohydrate
    ?
  60. Distinguish between Carbohydrate, lipid, protein, and nucleic aud
  61. how Many Atoms are inone mole of element
    6.02×10^23
  62. Solution
    Mixture of two or more Substances
  63. Solvent
    The dissolving agent (water)
  64. Solute
    The Substance that is dissolved.
  65. lipids
    • hydrophobic
    • • Fats store large amount of energy
    • • Do not have Polymers
    • • Dont like water(they are non polar)
  66. Primary (description)
    order of amino -o -o -o -o- o-o-o-
  67. Secondary
    • •B pleated sheets and Helix, like Side way Breast cancer awareness ribbon (description)
    • • hydrogen bonds, ionic bond, hydrophobic interaction, disulfide bridge. (Bond/interaction involved)
  68. Tetiary
    • 3D Shape, like a sideways (Description)
    • hydrogen bond (Bond / interaction)
  69. Quaternary
    • •Two or more Polypeptide Combined (Description)
    • • She had Sqiibbly lines
  70. Hypothesis (characteristics)
    • • testable
    • • False able
  71. List products from the dissociation of water
    hydronium ions (H3O+), hydroxide ions (OH-)
  72. Buffers
    • A substaces that minimizes changesIN the concentration of H+and OH- by accepting hydrogen ions from the Solution When they are in excess and donating hydrogen ions to the Solution when they have been depleted.
    • • allows biological fluids to maintain a relatively Constant ph despite the addition of acids and bases can help resist pH change.
  73. pH
    • The ph Scale compresses the range of H+and OH- by employing logarithms
    • •pH= - log [H+]
  74. Determine [H+] from pH
    • Acid
    • •0-6
    • increasing more acid
  75. Determine OH- from pH
    • •increasing Bases
    • •8-14
  76. Denaturatren
    Protein unravels losing its Special Structure and hence function.

    • Caused by
    • •pH
    • •salt Concentration
    • •high temperture.
  77. Amino acids and Peptide bond
    Amino acids are Amino and a Carboxyl group together bonded by a Peptide bond.
  78. Hydrocarbon
    Molecules consisting of only Carbon and hydroqen
  79. acid
    increases the hydrogen ion Concentration of a solutlion
  80. base
    decreases the hydrogen ion Concentration of a Solution.
  81. H+
    Gained an electron
  82. OH-
    Lost an electron
  83. Monomers
    Single reactive molecule
  84. Polymer
    Multiple monomers
  85. macromolecules
    macro - huge

    • •Carbohydrates
    • •Proteins
    • •Nucleic acids.
    • •Lipids
  86. Covalent bonds ' link carbon in long chains that form Skelton Framework. These may Vary in
    • •Length
    • •Branching
    • •Double bond Position
    • • Presence of rings
  87. Hydrocarbons
    They are hydrophobic because Carbon and hydrogen are non polar. They do not like water. Water is polar, it is is Surrounded by water.
  88. Functional group
    • 1.Hydroxyl
    • 2. Carbonyl
    • 3. Carboxyl
    • 4. Amino
    • 5. Sulfhydrl
    • 6. Phosphate
  89. Monosacharride
    One Sugar
  90. disaccharide
    2 Sugars
  91. Polysaccharide
    Many Sugars
  92. Building Block molecules
    • 1. lipids
    • 2. proteins
    • 3. Carbohydrates
    • 4. nucleic acids
  93. Phospholipids
    Types of lipids, that are similar to triglycerides. Contains a Phosphate group replace one of the fatty acids
  94. Steriods
    Cholesterol and Certain hormones.
  95. Dehydration synthesis
    Building, Putting together, or combining because of the loss of water.
  96. Hydrolysis
    To break something apart using water
  97. Isomers
    • 1. Structural Isomer
    • 2. Cis- trans Isomer
    • 3. Enatiomers Isomers
  98. structural Isomers
    Same formulas but arranged differently
  99. Cis-trans Isomers
    different in arrangements and have a double bond
  100. Enantiomers
    mirror images not the same
  101. Effective enantiomer (Ibuprofen) (Albuterol)
    • •condition Pain (S - Ibuprofen )
    • •condition Asthma (R -Albuterol)
    • works no other way
  102. Starch
    A plant polysaccharide
  103. Glycogen
    In animal Polysaccharide
  104. Hydroxyl
    • OH
    • • hydrogen group is bonded to Group an oxygen
  105. Carbonyl
    Carbon atom Joined to a oxygen atom double bonded
  106. Carboxyl
    Oxygen is double bonded to Carbon that is also bonded to hydroxyl OH
  107. Amino
    Nitrogen bonded with two atoms
  108. Sulfhydryl
    Sulfur bonded to hydrogen
  109. Phosphate
    • phosphorus is bonded to 4 Oxygen atoms
    • • one oxygen is bonded to the Carbon Skelton.
    • • two oxgen Carry negative Charges
  110. Methyl
    Carbon bonded to three hydroyen

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