Card Set Information
_____ are catalysts for chemical reactions in living things.
A ___ lowers activation activity.
What are substances that speeds up chemical reactions?
What is the catalyst in living things? They are also needed for almost all processes
___ allows chemical reactions to occur under tightly controlled conditions.
Most enzymes are ___.
Enzymes functions best in a ___ range of conditions.
What can break hydrogen bonds and denature enzymes?
Changes in temperature and pH
An enzyme's function is based on its ___.
____ bind to an enzyme at certain places called ___ sites.
The enzyme brings substrates together and ____ their bonds.
The catalyzed reaction forms a ___ that is released from the enzyme.
Enzymes are specific to a ____.
Enzymes have ___ temperatures and pH at which they work best.
All living things are based on ___ and _____.
atoms; their interactions
What is the smallest basic unit of measurement?
The ___ of an atom has protons and neutrons.
____ are in energy levels outside nucleus.
A ____ is made of atoms of different elements bonded together.
____ forms when atoms gain or loose electrons.
Positive ions are called ____.
Negative ions are called ____.
What forms between oppositely charged ions?
Atoms share pairs of electrons in ____ _____.
____'s unique properties allow life to exist on Earth.
Life depends on ____ ____ in water.
Water is a ____ molecule.
_____ molecules have slightly charged regions.
____ molecules do not have charged regions.
___ ____ forms between slightly positive hydrogen atoms and slightly negative atoms.
Hydrogen bonds are responsible for what important properties of water?
High specific heat, cohesion, adhesion, and surface tension
What is known as the Universal Solvent?
What is formed when one substance dissolves in another? It is also a homogeneous mixture.
___ dissolves other substances.
____ dissolves in a solvent.
Polar solvents dissolve ___ solutes
Nonpolar solvents dissolves ___ solutes.
An ___ releases a hydrogen ion when it dissolves in water.
A ___ removes hydrogen ions from a solution.
A neutral solution has a pH of __.
_____- ____ molecules are the foundation of life.
Carbon forms ___ ____ with up to four other atoms, including carbon atoms.
What are the three general structures of carbon-based molecules?
straight chain, branched chain, and ring
Many carbon-based molecules are made of many call subunits bonded together called ___.
___ are made of many monomers
What are the four main types of carbon-based molecules found in living things?
Carbohydrates, Lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
___ are made of carbon, hydrgoen, and oxygen.
What are simple sugars?
______ include starches, cellulose, and glycogen.
____ includes sugars and starches
What can be broken down to provide energy for cells?
___ are nonpolar molecules that includes fasts, oils, and cholesterol.
Many lipids contains carbon chains called ____ ____.
Fats and oils contains fatty acids bonded to ___.
Lipids are used for what three main functions?
Breaking down as a source of energy, make up cell membranes, used to make hormones
___ fatty acids has no double bonds between the carbons.
____ fatty acids has double bonds between the carbons
_____ make up all cell membranes.
The heads of phospholipids are ___ ____
The tails of phospholipids are ____ _____ ___
Nonpolar fatty acid
____ are polymers of amino acid monomers.
____ different amino acids are used to build proteins in organism.
Amino acids are linked by ___ ____
What interacts to give protein its shape?
What are some of the shapes of a protein?
Primary structure , secondary structure, tertiary structure, Quaternary structure
____ ____ are polymers of monomers called nucleotides.
____ are made of a sugar, phosphate group and a nitrogen base/
____ stores genetic information.
___ builds proteins
What are three types of RNA?
Messenger RNA, Transfer RNA, Ribosomal RNA