Biology

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8thgradeclass
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236559
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Biology
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2013-09-23 19:17:53
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  1. _____ are catalysts for chemical reactions in living things.
    enzymes
  2. A ___ lowers activation activity.
    catalyst
  3. What are substances that speeds up chemical reactions?
    catalyst
  4. What is the catalyst in living things? They are also needed for almost all processes
    enzymes
  5. ___ allows chemical reactions to occur under tightly controlled conditions.
    Enzymes
  6. Most enzymes are ___.
    Proteins
  7. Enzymes functions best in a ___ range of conditions.
    small
  8. What can break hydrogen bonds and denature enzymes?
    Changes in temperature and pH
  9. An enzyme's function is based on its ___.
    structure
  10. ____ bind to an enzyme at certain places called ___ sites.
    Substrates; active
  11. The enzyme brings substrates together and ____ their bonds.
    weakens
  12. The catalyzed reaction forms a ___ that is released from the enzyme.
    product
  13. Enzymes are specific to a ____.
    reaction
  14. Enzymes have ___ temperatures and pH at which they work best.
    optimum
  15. All living things are based on ___ and _____.
    atoms; their interactions
  16. What is the smallest basic unit of measurement?
    atom
  17. The ___ of an atom has protons and neutrons.
    nucleus
  18. ____ are in energy levels outside nucleus.
    electrons
  19. A ____ is made of atoms of different elements bonded together.
    compound
  20. ____ forms when atoms gain or loose electrons.
    Ions
  21. Positive ions are called ____.
    cation
  22. Negative ions are called ____.
    Anion
  23. What forms between oppositely charged ions?
    Ionic bonds
  24. Atoms share pairs of electrons in ____ _____.
    covalent bonds
  25. ____'s unique properties allow life to exist on Earth.
    Water
  26. Life depends on ____ ____ in water.
    hydrogen bonds
  27. Water is a ____ molecule.
    polar
  28. _____ molecules have slightly charged regions.
    polar
  29. ____ molecules do not have charged regions.
    nonpolar
  30. ___ ____ forms between slightly positive hydrogen atoms and slightly negative atoms.
    Hydrogen bonds
  31. Hydrogen bonds are responsible for what important properties of water?
    High specific heat, cohesion, adhesion, and surface tension
  32. What is known as the Universal Solvent?
    water
  33. What is formed when one substance dissolves in another? It is also a homogeneous mixture.
    solution
  34. ___ dissolves other substances.
    Solvents
  35. ____ dissolves in a solvent.
    solute
  36. Polar solvents dissolve ___ solutes
    polar
  37. Nonpolar solvents dissolves ___ solutes.
    nonpolar
  38. An ___ releases a hydrogen ion when it dissolves in water.
    acid
  39. A ___ removes hydrogen ions from a solution.
    base
  40. A neutral solution has a pH of __.
    7
  41. _____- ____ molecules are the foundation of life.
    carbon based
  42. Carbon forms ___ ____ with up to four other atoms, including carbon atoms.
    covalent bonds
  43. What are the three general structures of carbon-based molecules?
    straight chain, branched chain, and ring
  44. Many carbon-based molecules are made of many call subunits bonded together called ___.
    Monomers
  45. ___ are made of many monomers
    polymers
  46. What are the four main types of carbon-based molecules found in living things?
    Carbohydrates, Lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
  47. ___ are made of carbon, hydrgoen, and oxygen.
    Carbohydrates.
  48. What are simple sugars?
    Monosaccharides
  49. ______ include starches, cellulose, and glycogen.
    Polysaccharides
  50. ____ includes sugars and starches
    Carbohydrates
  51. What can be broken down to provide energy for cells?
    Carbohydrates
  52. ___ are nonpolar molecules that includes fasts, oils, and cholesterol.
    lipids
  53. Many lipids contains carbon chains called ____ ____.
    fatty acids
  54. Fats and oils contains fatty acids bonded to ___.
    gycerol
  55. Lipids are used for what three main functions?
    Breaking down as a source of energy, make up cell membranes, used to make hormones
  56. ___ fatty acids has no double bonds between the carbons.
    saturated
  57. ____ fatty acids has double bonds between the carbons
    unsaturated
  58. _____ make up all cell membranes.
    Phospholipids
  59. The heads of phospholipids are ___ ____
    polar phosphate
  60. The tails of phospholipids are ____ _____ ___
    Nonpolar fatty acid
  61. ____ are polymers of amino acid monomers.
    Proteins
  62. ____ different amino acids are used to build proteins in organism.
    Twenty
  63. Amino acids are linked by ___ ____
    peptide bonds
  64. What interacts to give protein its shape?
    amino acids
  65. What are some of the shapes of a protein?
    Primary structure , secondary structure, tertiary structure, Quaternary structure
  66. ____ ____ are polymers of monomers called nucleotides.
    Nucleic acids
  67. ____ are made of a sugar, phosphate group and a nitrogen base/
    necleotides
  68. ____ stores genetic information.
    DNA
  69. ___ builds proteins
    RNA
  70. What are three types of RNA?
    Messenger RNA, Transfer RNA, Ribosomal RNA

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