Pysch psychology jun barbagallo quiz test portions brain marking period
Structure at the top of the brain stem involved in respiration, movement, waking, sleep, and dreaming
A segment of DNA occupying a specific place on a particular chromosome that carries the code for hereditary transmission
Bundle of nerve fibers connecting the brain's left and right hemispheres and let's both sides of the body work at once.
The command center.
Transmits messages all over the body (except smell)
Allows you to sleep and and stay awake
Tries to maintain homeostasis
(example: being cold)
A small brain structure beneath the thalamus that maintains the body's internal environment and regulates emotions and drives, such as hunger, thirst, sex and aggression.
-Pleasure and Reward Center
-Keeps the body in homeostasis
Master glands. Allows other glands to work.
Controls arousal and alertness
What happens if your Reticular Formation is damaged?
You can become a vegetable/go into acoma
Used for heart rate and breathing.
Can't survive without it.
Controls the Medulla
Voluntary Muscle Movement for sports/balance.
What can happen if your cerebellum is damaged?
You can get Vertigo
An almond-shaped lower level brain structure that is part of the limbic system and involved in emotion
Creates new memories, but does not store them
(like a secretary)
Part of the Frontal Lobe,
controls voluntary muscle movement
like pinching and grasping
Makes you feel pressure
Took a spike to his skull and his personality changed...who is he?
What is the importance of Phineas Gage's personality change after a spike went through his skull?
Different parts of the brain do different things.
Who studied Phrenology and made a map of the brain? He believed that if there is a bump somewhere on your skull there is something wrong there.
EEG stands for?
Measures brain waves by placing electrodes on key places on a person's scalp.
Give two examples as to why you'd need a EEG?
What is another name for a CT Scan?
What does a CT scan stand for?
A series of pictures from different angles put together in a computer to represent a slice through a person's head
Give 2 examples as to why you would need a CT Scan?
Used to detect where energy is used in your brain by using radioactive glucose
The Pet Scan
What can a Pet Scan help detect?
Schizophrenia (or if the brain has problems)
A Pet Scan, with a fully dark brain represents...
Not a lot of energy
A Pet Scan with a light colored brain represents...
What does PET scan stand for?
Positron Emission Tomography
What does an MRI scan stand for?
Magnetic Resonance imaging
Helps to distinguish between different layers of tissue within the body
Uses electrons within the body (it speeds them up) to help produce the picture
About how long can an MRI Scan take?
A long time-45 minutes
Describe an MRI Scan
Not allowed to move (if you do you have to start all over)
What is an MRI good for?
Broken limbs, concussions
What is better a CAT scan or an MRI?
The oldest portions of the central nervous system
Processes things outside our awareness or unconsciously
What are Reflexes caused by?
One part of the Central Nervous System that has never been changed over time?
Helps coordinate information from the cerebrum down the cerebellum and medulla
Helps send messages up to the Thamalus
Do Alcoholic's dream?
Where is the Reticular Formation located?
In the Brainstem
Who found out about Reticular Formation?
Where is the Thalamus located
Top of the Brainstem
Is like a switchboard that can relay sensory messages all over the brain-wherever they need to go
Is nicknamed the "Little Brain"
Is used for Emotion and memory
The Limbic System
Why is using Psychosurgery to get rid of our aggressive/fearful personalities not good?
They're necessary to protect ourselves.
What happens if the Hippocampus is damaged?
No memories can be created anymore
What are somethings that the Hypothalamus regulates?
Is in charge of the Pituitary Gland and the Endocrine System
What happens when someone has Reward Deficiency Syndrome?
They aren't as happy anymore and they start to get into drugs or do bad things and that gives them pleasure.
How does Alchohol effect the frontal lobe?
It causes people to make bad decisions
Speaking; muscle movements; making plans; judgement; also contains Motor Cortex
Contains the sensory cortex (pain, pressure, touch...) and is located at the crown of the head
Visual processing occurs here, and is located in the back of the head
Is where auditory stimuli are processed and is located behind/above the ears
Is necessary for talking/speech and is located in the left frontal lobes
Is necessary for language reception/to answer back to something and is located in the left temporal lobe
Is necessary for connecting the two hemispheres of the brain
If medicines don't work doctors cut the fibers of the brain usually in attempt to help with seizures
Left Brain is...
The Right Brain is...
5 things someone who depends on the left side of the brain is usually good at...
7 things someone who depends on the right side of the brain is usually good at...
What are the four major lobes of the brain and are what the Cerebral Cortex is made up of?
What parts compose the brainstem?
What parts compose the Limbic System?
What can happen if the Corpus Callosum is damaged?
Part of the Occipital lobe,
receives and processes visual information
Part of the Parietal Lobe,
receives sensory messages
A layer of fatty insulation wrapped around the axon of some neurons that increases the rate at which nerve impulses travel along the axon
A subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that connects to sensory receptors and controls skeletal muscles
Somatic Nervous System
The driving mechanism behind evolution, which allows individuals with genetically influenced traits that are adaptive in a particular environment to stay alive and produce offspring
Neural centers located near the top of the brainstem involved in coordinating movement patterns, sleep and arousal
Individual nerve cell responsible for processing, storing, and transmitting information throughout the body
Chemical substances in the nervous system similar in structure and action to opiates
Junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron
A collection of glands located throughout the body that manufacture and secrete hormones into the bloodstream
Chemicals manufactured by endocrine glands and circulated in the bloodstream to produce bodily changes or maintain normal bodily functions
Part of the neuron containing the cell nucleus, as well as other structures, which helps the neuron carry out its functions
Chemicals manufactured and released by neurons that alter activity in other neurons
An interconnected group of lower-level brain structures involved with the arousal and regulation of emotion, motivation, memory, and many other aspects of behavior, and mental processes.
An interdisciplinary field studying how biological processes relate to behavior and mental processes
Quiet areas in the cerebral cortex involved in interpreting, integrating, and acting on information processed by other parts of the brain
Branching neuron structures receiving neural impulses from other neurons and conveying impulses toward the cell body
Cells that provide structural, nutritional, and other support for the neurons as well as communication with the nervous system
Specialization of the left and right hemispheres of the brain for particular operations
The division of non-neuronal cells to produce neurons
Threadlike strands of DNA molecules that carry genetic information
Precursor (immature) cells that give birth to new specialized cells
Interdisciplinary field studying how biological processes relate to behavioral and mental processes
Most poisons and drugs have their at the ...
Part of the autonomic nervous system and is dominant during normal, relaxed times
Is dominant during times of mental or physical stress
Reached when the number of excitatory responses out weigh the inhibitory responses
What are the four types of Neurons?
Neurons that move the info throughout the nervous systems
Neurons that pick up stimuli
Neurons that process info
Special frontal lobe neurons that fire when observing and imitating another's behaviors
What does Excitatory mean?
What does Inhibitory mean?
Goes on in the Axon of the Neuron and carries a message from the cell body to the terminal branches
What else can an Action Potential be called?
What is Action Potential made of?
Which ions are the one's carrying the messages in Action Potential?
What is the difference between Hormones and Neurotransmitters?
Hormones are in blood and are slow acting
Neurotransmitters are in the synapse and are faster acting
When the brain repairs itself
Is used for Muscle movement and new memories
Too Much: seizures and epilepsy
Too Little: Alzheimer's
Is used for mood
Too Much: Mania (too much energy
Too Little: Depression
Is used for pleasure, movement, and emotion
Too much: Schizophrenia
Too little: Parkinsons
Too much: Anxiety
Too little: tired
Is associated with Adrenaline and helps control alertness and arousal
What kind of medicine is used for Depression?
What kind of medicine is used for Schizophrenia?
What kind of medicine is used for Parkinsons?
What kind of medicine is used for anxiety?
What kind of medicine is used for Bipolar Disorder?
Forms junctions with other cells
Passes messages from the cell body to other neurons
Most common types of hallucinations?
What helps the neurotransmitters cross the synpatic gap?
Where does the information bond to after crossing the synaptic gap?
What is the Axon protected by?
What happens if the Myelin Sheath is damaged?
It can lead to Multiple sclerosis (MS)
Most important brain scan?
Mimic and copy a certain neurotansmitter
Mimics your body's own endorphines
Blocks the neurotransmitters
Blocks the flow of ACh, therefore making an individual unable to move