Pysch: Portions of the Brain

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Pysch: Portions of the Brain
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2014-09-08 16:01:17
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  1. Structure at the top of the brain stem involved in respiration, movement, waking, sleep, and dreaming
    Pons
  2. A segment of DNA occupying a specific place on a particular chromosome that carries the code for hereditary transmission
    Gene
  3. Bundle of nerve fibers connecting the brain's left and right hemispheres and let's both sides of the body work at once.
    Corpus Callosum
  4. The brain.
    The command center.
    Cerebral Cortex
  5. Transmits messages all over the body (except smell)
    Thalamus
  6. Allows you to sleep and and stay awake
    Thalamus
  7. Tries to maintain homeostasis 
    (example: being cold)
    Hypothalamus
  8. A small brain structure beneath the thalamus that maintains the body's internal environment and regulates emotions and drives, such as hunger, thirst, sex and aggression.
    -Pleasure and Reward Center
    -Keeps the body in homeostasis  
    Hypothalamus
  9. Master glands. Allows other glands to work.
    Pituitary
  10. Controls arousal and alertness
    Reticular Formation
  11. What happens if your Reticular Formation is damaged?
    You can become a vegetable/go into acoma
  12. Used for heart rate and breathing.
    Can't survive without it.
    Medulla
  13. Controls reflexes
    Spinal Cord
  14. Controls the Medulla
    Spinal Cord
  15. Voluntary Muscle Movement for sports/balance.
    Cerebellum
  16. What can happen if your cerebellum is damaged?
    You can get Vertigo
  17. An almond-shaped lower level brain structure that is part of the limbic system and involved in emotion
    Amygdala
  18. Creates new memories, but does not store them
    (like a secretary)
    Hippocampus
  19. Part of the Frontal Lobe,
    controls voluntary muscle movement
    like pinching and grasping
    Motor Cortex
  20. Makes you feel pressure
    Sensory Cortex
  21. Took a spike to his skull and his personality changed...who is he?
    Phineas Gage
  22. What is the importance of Phineas Gage's personality change after a spike went through his skull?
    Different parts of the brain do different things.
  23. Who studied Phrenology and made a map of the brain? He believed that if there is a bump somewhere on your skull there is something wrong there.
    Franz Gall
  24. EEG stands for?
    Electroencephalogram
  25. Measures brain waves by placing electrodes on key places on a person's scalp.
    The EEG
  26. Give two examples as to why you'd need a EEG?
    • Sleep disorders
    • Lie dectors
  27. What is another name for a CT Scan?
    Cat Scan
  28. What does a CT scan stand for?
    Computed Tomography
  29. A series of pictures from different angles put together in a computer to represent a slice through a person's head
    CT Scan
  30. Give 2 examples as to why you would need a CT Scan?
    • Bad headaches
    • Knee problems
  31. Used to detect where energy is used in your brain by using radioactive glucose
    The Pet Scan
  32. What can a Pet Scan help detect?
    (a disorder)
    Schizophrenia (or if the brain has problems)
  33. A Pet Scan, with a fully dark brain represents...
    Not a lot of energy
  34. A Pet Scan with a light colored brain represents...
    Energy
  35. What does PET scan stand for?
    Positron Emission Tomography
  36. What does an MRI scan stand for?
    Magnetic Resonance imaging
  37. Helps to distinguish between different layers of tissue within the body
    MRI Scan
  38. Uses electrons within the body (it speeds them up) to help produce the picture
    MRI Scan
  39. About how long can an MRI Scan take?
    A long time-45 minutes
  40. Describe an MRI Scan
    (2)
    • Very loud
    • Not allowed to move (if you do you have to start all over)
  41. What is an MRI good for?
    Broken limbs, concussions
  42. What is better a CAT scan or an MRI?
    MRI
  43. The oldest portions of the central nervous system
    The brainstem
  44. Processes things outside our awareness or unconsciously
    Brainstem
  45. What are Reflexes caused by?
    The brainstem
  46. One part of the Central Nervous System that has never been changed over time?
    The brainstem
  47. Helps coordinate information from the cerebrum down the cerebellum and medulla
    The Pons
  48. Helps send messages up to the Thamalus
    Pons
  49. Do Alcoholic's dream?
    No
  50. Where is the Reticular Formation located?
    In the Brainstem
  51. Who found out about Reticular Formation?
    Magoun's experiment
  52. Where is the Thalamus located
    Top of the Brainstem
  53. Is like a switchboard that can relay sensory messages all over the brain-wherever they need to go
    Thalamus
  54. Is nicknamed the "Little Brain"
    Cerebellum
  55. Is used for Emotion and memory
    The Limbic System
  56. Why is using Psychosurgery to get rid of our aggressive/fearful personalities not good?
    They're necessary to protect ourselves.
  57. What happens if the Hippocampus is damaged?
    No memories can be created anymore
  58. What are somethings that the Hypothalamus regulates?
    (3)
    • Eating
    • Drinking
    • Body temperature.
  59. Is in charge of the Pituitary Gland and the Endocrine System
    Hypothalamus
  60. What happens when someone has Reward Deficiency Syndrome?
    They aren't as happy anymore and they start to get into drugs or do bad things and that gives them pleasure.
  61. How does Alchohol effect the frontal lobe?
    It causes people to make bad decisions
  62. Speaking; muscle movements; making plans; judgement; also contains Motor Cortex
    Frontal Lobe
  63. Contains the sensory cortex (pain, pressure, touch...) and is located at the crown of the head
    Parietal Lobe
  64. Visual processing occurs here, and is located in the back of the head
    Occipital Lobes
  65. Is where auditory stimuli are processed and is located behind/above the ears
    Temporal Lobes
  66. Is necessary for talking/speech and is located in the left frontal lobes
    Broca's Areas
  67. Is necessary for language reception/to answer back to something and is located in the left temporal lobe
    Wernicke's Area
  68. Is necessary for connecting the two hemispheres of the brain
    Corpus Callosum
  69. If medicines don't work doctors cut the fibers of the brain usually in attempt to help with seizures
    Split Brain
  70. Left Brain is...
    Analytical
  71. The Right Brain is...
    Creative
  72. 5 things someone who depends on the left side of the brain is usually good at...
    • Language
    • Logic
    • Critical Thinking
    • Numbers
    • Reasoning
  73. 7 things someone who depends on the right side of the brain is usually good at...
    • Recognizing faces
    • Expressing emotions
    • Reading emotions
    • Music
    • Colors
    • Images
    • Intuition
  74. What are the four major lobes of the brain and are what the Cerebral Cortex is made up of?
    • Frontal
    • Parietal
    • Occipital
    • Temporal
  75. What parts compose the brainstem?
    (5)
    • Medulla
    • Pons
    • Reticular formation
    • Thalamus
    • Spinal Cord
  76. What parts compose the Limbic System?
    (4)
    • Hypothalamus
    • Amygdala
    • Hippocampus
    • Pituitary Gland
  77. What can happen if the Corpus Callosum is damaged?
    (2)
    • Epilepsy
    • Seizures
  78. Part of the Occipital lobe,
    receives and processes visual information
    Visual Cortex
  79. Part of the Parietal Lobe,
    receives sensory messages
    Somatosensory Cortex
  80. A layer of fatty insulation wrapped around the axon of some neurons that increases the rate at which nerve impulses travel along the axon
    Myelin Sheath
  81. A subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that connects to sensory receptors and controls skeletal muscles
    Somatic Nervous System
  82. The driving mechanism behind evolution, which allows individuals with genetically influenced traits that are adaptive in a particular environment to stay alive and produce offspring
    Natural Selection
  83. Neural centers located near the top of the brainstem involved in coordinating movement patterns, sleep and arousal
    Midbrain
  84. Individual nerve cell responsible for processing, storing, and transmitting information throughout the body
    Neuron
  85. Chemical substances in the nervous system similar in structure and action to opiates
    Endorphins
  86. Junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron
    Synapse
  87. A collection of glands located throughout the body that manufacture and secrete hormones into the bloodstream
    Endocrine System
  88. Chemicals manufactured by endocrine glands and circulated in the bloodstream to produce bodily changes or maintain normal bodily functions
    Hormones
  89. Part of the neuron containing the cell nucleus, as well as other structures, which helps the neuron carry out its functions
    Cell Body
  90. Chemicals manufactured and released by neurons that alter activity in other neurons
    Neurotransmitter
  91. An interconnected group of lower-level brain structures involved with the arousal and regulation of emotion, motivation, memory, and many other aspects of behavior, and mental processes.
    Limbic System
  92. An interdisciplinary field studying how biological processes relate to behavior and mental processes
    Neuroscience
  93. Quiet areas in the cerebral cortex involved in interpreting, integrating, and acting on information processed by other parts of the brain
    Association Areas
  94. Branching neuron structures receiving neural impulses from other neurons and conveying impulses toward the cell body
    Dendrites
  95. Cells that provide structural, nutritional, and other support for the neurons as well as communication with the nervous system
    Glial Cells
  96. Specialization of the left and right hemispheres of the brain for particular operations
    Lateralization
  97. The division of non-neuronal cells to produce neurons
    Neurogenesis
  98. Threadlike strands of DNA molecules that carry genetic information
    Chromosomes
  99. Precursor (immature) cells that give birth to new specialized cells
    Stem Cells
  100. Interdisciplinary field studying how biological processes relate to behavioral and mental processes
    Pschophysiology
  101. Most poisons and drugs have their at the ...
    Synapse
  102. Part of the autonomic nervous system and is dominant during normal, relaxed times
    Parasympathetic
  103. Is dominant during times of mental or physical stress
    Sympathetic
  104. Reached when the number of excitatory responses out weigh the inhibitory responses
    Threshold
  105. What are the four types of Neurons?
    • Motor neurons
    • Sensory Neurons
    • Interneurons
    • Mirror Neurons
  106. Neurons that move the info throughout the nervous systems
    Motor Neurons
  107. Neurons that pick up stimuli
    Sensory Neurons
  108. Neurons that process info
    Interneurons
  109. Special frontal lobe neurons that fire when observing and imitating another's behaviors
    Mirror Neurons
  110. What does Excitatory mean?
    Go
  111. What does Inhibitory mean?
    Stop
  112. Goes on in the Axon of the Neuron and carries a message from the cell body to the terminal branches
    Action Potential
  113. What else can an Action Potential be called?
    Neural Impulse
  114. What is Action Potential made of?
    Sodium Ions
  115. Which ions are the one's carrying the messages in Action Potential?
    Negative Ions
  116. What is the difference between Hormones and Neurotransmitters?
    Hormones are in blood and are slow acting

    Neurotransmitters are in the synapse and are faster acting
  117. When the brain repairs itself
    Plasticity
  118. Is used for Muscle movement and new memories
    Acetylcholine (ACh)
  119. Acetylecholine:
    Too much?
    Too little?
    • Too Much: seizures and epilepsy
    • Too Little: Alzheimer's
  120. Is used for mood
    Serotonine
  121. Serotonin:
    Too much?
    Too little?
    • Too Much: Mania (too much energy
    • Too Little: Depression
  122. Is used for pleasure, movement, and emotion
    Dopamine
  123. Dopamine:
    Too much?
    Too little?
    • Too much: Schizophrenia
    • Too little: Parkinsons
  124. Norepinephrine:
    Too much?
    Too little?
    • Too much: Anxiety
    • Too little: tired
  125. Is associated with Adrenaline and helps control alertness and arousal
    Norepinephrine
  126. What kind of medicine is used for Depression?
    Zoloff
  127. What kind of medicine is used for Schizophrenia?
    Thorazine
  128. What kind of medicine is used for Parkinsons?
    L-Dopa
  129. What kind of medicine is used for anxiety?
    Xanax
  130. What kind of medicine is used for Bipolar Disorder?
    Lithium
  131. Forms junctions with other cells
    Terminal branches
  132. Passes messages from the cell body to other neurons
    Axon
  133. Most common types of hallucinations?
    Auditory
  134. What helps the neurotransmitters cross the synpatic gap?
    Vesicles
  135. Where does the information bond to after crossing the synaptic gap?
    Recepter Sites
  136. What is the Axon protected by?
    Mylein Sheath
  137. What happens if the Myelin Sheath is damaged?
    It can lead to Multiple sclerosis (MS)
  138. Most important brain scan?
    PET scan
  139. Mimic and copy a certain neurotansmitter
    Agonist
  140. Mimics your body's own endorphines
    Morphine
  141. Blocks the neurotransmitters
    Antagonists
  142. Blocks the flow of ACh, therefore making an individual unable to move
    Curare

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