M.T. Chapter 6 - Digestive System

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ams217
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M.T. Chapter 6 - Digestive System
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2013-09-23 20:15:56
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digestive system terminology
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digestive system terminology
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  1. circular band of muscle fibers that constrict a passage or closes a natural opening of the body
    sphincter
  2. anterior portion forming the roof of the mouth
    hard palate
  3. posterior portion forming the roof of the mouth; forms a partition between the mouth and the nasopharynx
    soft palate
  4. throat
    pharynx
  5. part of the pharynx that leads to the lungs
    trachea
  6. part of the pharynx that leads to the stomach
    esophagus
  7. small flap of cartilage that folds over to cover the trachea during swallowing, forcing the food to enter the esophagus
    epiglottis
  8. food is propelled through the entire GI tract by coordinated, rhythmic muscle contractions
    perastalsis
  9. sections of the small intestine
    • - duodenum
    • - jejunum
    • - ileum
  10. sections of the large intestine
    • - cecum
    • - colon
    • - rectum
  11. the largest glandular organ in the body
    liver
  12. organ that is also an endocrine gland
    pancreas
  13. mouth
    or/o
  14. mouth
    stomat/o
  15. tongue
    lingu/o
  16. cheek
    bucc/o
  17. lip
    cheil/o
  18. labi/o
    lip
  19. teeth
    dent/o
  20. teeth
    odont/o
  21. gum(s)
    gingiv/o
  22. saliva, salivary glad
    sial/o
  23. esophagus
    esophag/o
  24. pharynx (throat)
    pharyng/o
  25. stomach
    gastr/o
  26. pylorus
    pylor/o
  27. duodenum (first part of small intestine)
    duoden/o
  28. intestine (usually small intestine)
    enter/o
  29. jejunum (second part of small intestine)
    jejun/o
  30. ileum (third part of small intestine)
    ile/o
  31. appendix
    append/o
  32. appendix
    appendic/o
  33. colon
    col/o
  34. colon
    colon/o
  35. creation of an opening between the colon and the abdominal wall
    colostomy
  36. visual examination of the colon
    colonoscopy
  37. rectum
    rect/o
  38. anus, rectum
    proct/o
  39. anus
    an/o
  40. liver
    hepat/o
  41. pancreas
    pancreat/o
  42. vomit
    -emesis
  43. enlargement
    -megaly
  44. appetite
    -orexia
  45. without appetite; lack or loss of an appetite, resulting in the inability to eat
    anorexia
  46. digestion
    -pepsia
  47. difficult or painful digestion; indigestion
    dyspepsia
  48. swallowing; eating
    -phagia
  49. do not manifest symptoms
    asymptomatic
  50. circumscribed open sore on the skin or mucous membranes of the body
    ulcer
  51. protrusion of any organ, tissue, or structure through the wall of the cavity in which it is naturally contained
    hernia
  52. surgical creation of an opening
    stoma
  53. scar tissue
    adhesions
  54. two types of intestinal obstruction
    • - mechanical
    • - non-mechanical
  55. occurs when intestinal contents are prevented from moving forward due to an obstacle or barrier that blocks the lumen
    mechanical obstruction
  56. occurs when peristalsis is impaired and the intestinal contents cannot be propelled through the bowel
    non-mechanical obstruction
  57. condition in which small, blisterlike pockets develop in the inner lining of the large intestine and may balloon through the intestinal wall
    diverticulosis
  58. condition in which small, blisterlike pockets develop in the inner lining of the large intestine and may balloon through the intestinal wall; when these are inflamed
    diverticulitis
  59. physical wasting that includes loss of weight and muscle mass and is coomonly associated with acquired immune dificiency syndrome (AIDS) and cancer
    cachexia
  60. presence or formation of gallstones in the gallbladder or common bile duct
    cholelithiasis
  61. scarring and dysfunction of the liver caused by chronic liver disease
    cirrhosis
  62. form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), usually of the ilem but possibly affecting any portion of the intestinal tract; also called regional enteritis
    Crohn disease
  63. backflow of gastric contents into the esophagus due to the malfunction of the sphincter muscle at the inferior portion of the esophagus
    gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
  64. vomiting of blood from bleeding in the stomach or esophagus
    hematemesis
  65. symptom complex marked by abdominal pain and altered bowel function (typically constipation, diarrhea, or alternating constipation and diarrhea) for which no organic cause can be determined; also called spastic colon
    irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
  66. formation of white spots or patches on the mucous membrane of the tongue, lips or cheek caused primarily by irritation
    oral leukoplakia
  67. stricture or narrowing of the pyloric sphincter (circular muscle of the pylorus) at the outlet of the stomach, causing an obstruction that blocks the flow of food into the small intestine
    pyloric stenosis
  68. backward flowing, as in the return solids or fluids into the mouth from the stomach
    regurgitation
  69. procedure for crushing a stone and eliminating its fragments surgically or using ultrasonic shock waves
    lithotripsy
  70. excision of a polyp
    polypectomy
  71. visual examination of the gastrointestinal tract using a flexible fiberoptic instrument with a magnifying lens and a light source (endoscope) to identify abnormalities, including bleeding, ulcerations and tumors
    gastrointestinal endoscopy
  72. test to identify microorganisms or parasite present in the feces that are causing a gastrointestinal infection
    stool culture
  73. radiographic images of the rectum and colon following administration of barium into the rectum
    lower GI series/barium enema
  74. radiographic images of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine following oral administration of barium
    upper GI series (UGIS)/barium swallow
  75. immediately
    stat
  76. digital rectal exam
    DRE
  77. counteract or neutralize acidity, usually in the stomach
    antacids
  78. control loose stools and relieve diarrhea by absorbing excess water in the bowel or slowing peristalsis in the intestinal tract
    antidiarrheals
  79. control nausea and vomiting by blocking nerve impulses to the vomiting center of the brain
    antemetics
  80. decrease GI spasms by slowing peristalsis and motility throughout the GI tract
    antispasmodics
  81. treat constipation by increasing peristaltic activity in the large intestine or increasing water and electrolyte secretion into the bowel to induce defication
    laxatives
  82. abnormal decrease in platelets caused by low production of platelets in the bone marrow or increased destruction of platelets in the blood vessels (intarvascualr), spleen (extravascular), or liver (extravascular)
    thrombocytopenia
  83. a feeling of constantly needing to pass stools, despite an empty colon
    rectal tenesmus
  84. decrease in the number of white blood cells
    leukopenia
  85. inflammation of the esophagus
    esophagitis

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