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What is ventilation?
The process of removing smoke, heat, and toxic gases from a burning building and replacing them with cooler, cleaner, more oxygen-rich air.
What are the benefits of proper ventilation?
- Locate trapped occupants faster
- Fresh air to occupants
- Advance hose lines rapidly and safely
- Reduce backdraft and flashover
- Limit fire spread
- Reduce property damage
When performing ventilation, which side of the building is opened first/last?
Leeward side is always opened first, followed by the windward side.
What are 3 reasons to perform ventilation?
Life safety, containment, and property conservation
Where should you ventilate?
As close to the fire as possible
What are the 2 basic types of ventilation?
Horizontal and vertical
What are the 2 different methods to perform ventilation?
Natural and mechanical
What are the 3 types of mechanical ventilation?
Negative-pressure, positive-pressure, and hydraulic
What are the advantages of negative-pressure ventilation?
Explosion proof motors
What are the limitations of negative-pressure ventilation?
- Power source
- Air flow control
What are the advantages of positive-pressure ventilation?
- Quick and efficient
- Increased safety
What are the limitations of positive-pressure ventilation?
- May spread the fire
- May increase carbon monoxide levels
What 2 things should be kept in mind when performing positive-pressure ventilation?
- Exit vent hole should be smaller than PPV fan hole
- PPV fan should cover the entire opening
Describe hydraulic ventilation
- Fog stream set to cover 90% of the window
- Nozzle should be roughly 2 feet back from window
- Advantage is that you can move several thousand cubic feet of air per second
- Disadvantages are water damage and possible safety hazards
What are 3 types of roof ventilation cuts?
Rectangular, peak, and trench
Describe a rectangular roof cut
- Four cuts completely through the decking
- Use care not to cut structural supports
- Stand upwind and have a safe exit
- If several layers exist, you may have to peel a layer at a time
Describe a peak roof cut
- Used for peak roofs with plywood sheeting
- A tool is used to reveal the roof covering along the peak
- A power saw or axe is used to make a series of vertical cuts
Describe a trench cut
- Used to stop the progress of a large fire in a narrow building
- Creates large opening ahead of the fire
- "Writes off" a part of the building
Describe Measures M and when it would be used.
Measures M is a combination of vertical and horizontal ventilation generally used in a high rise building.
- 1) Grade level exterior door is opened.
- 2) Grade level stairwell door is opened.
- 3) Fire floor stairwell door is opened.
- 4) Fire unit door is opened.
- 5) Fire unit doors/windows are opened.
Positive pressure fan is placed in front of the exterior door and forces out all the smoke and toxic gases created in a fire.