Radiographic Exposure Exam 1

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Radiographic Exposure Exam 1
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2013-10-22 23:47:46
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Radiographic Exposure Exam 1
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  1. Which of the following is a correct description of the relationship between the wavelength and frequency of the x-ray photon?

    Select one:


  2. X-rays are invisible.

    Select one:

  3. X-rays cannot be focused with a lens.

    Select one:
    True
  4. The first Nobel Prize for physics was received in 1901 by:

    Select one:


    Wilhelm Roentgen.
  5. The distance between two successive crests of a sine wave is known as:

    Select one:


  6. X-rays are able to interact with certain materials and produce light energy.

    Select one:
  7. When were x-rays discovered?

    Select one:
  8. Since Roentgen's discovery in the late nineteenth century, we have learned an enormous amount about the properties of x-rays.

    Select one:
  9. The frequency of a wave is the number of waves passing a given point per given unit of time. Frequency is measured in:

    Select one:

  10. When first developed, the branch of medicine using x-rays was called:

    Select one:
  11. The letter “x” in x-ray is the symbol for:

    Select one:
  12. An x-ray beam that has photons with many different energies is:

    Select one:
  13. Name the type of interaction shown here.


    Select one:
  14. The _____ is the portion of the x-ray tube that contains the filament.

    Select one:
    c. Cathode
  15. In diagnostic imaging, most x-ray photons are produced by ___________ interactions.

    Select one:
    c. Bremsstrahlung
  16. With a standard x-ray tube, _____% of the x-ray beam produced with 90 kVp is the result of characteristic interactions.

    Select one:
  17. The x-ray beam produced with 120 kVp will consist primarily of x-rays produced by bremsstrahlung interactions.

    Select one:
  18. Match the letter to the appropriate term to label the diagram of an x-ray tube.
    tube parts
    • F – Anode
    • D – Filament
    • B – Target
    • A – Stator
    • G – Cathode
    • C – Glass envelope
    • E – Rotor
  19. The electrical energy applied to an x-ray tube will be transformed to:

    Select one:
  20. X-ray photon energy is measured in:

    Select one:
  21. What are the 2 types of interactions that accelerated electrons have with the target to produce x-ray photons?

    Select one or more:
    Bremsstrahlung, Characteristic
  22. Calculate the mAs:
    150 mA, 100 ms
    15 mAs
  23. Decreasing the exposure time results in:

    Select one:
  24. True or False:
    Space charge effect refers to the tendency of the space charge to not allow more electrons to be boiled off the filament.

    Select one:
  25. The focusing cup focuses:

    Select one:
  26. The focusing cup:

    Select one:
  27. Electrons can flow from cathode to anode or from anode to cathode during the x-ray exposure.

    Select one:
  28. How fast does the anode rotate?

    Select one:
  29. mA has a __________ relationship with density.

    Select one:
  30. Inside the x-ray tube envelope you will find:

    Select one:
    None of the above
  31. Tungsten has a ________ atomic number and a _________ melting point.

    Select one:

    b. High, high
  32. Kilovoltage controls the

    Select one:
  33. mA is a measure of _____ that flows from cathode to anode.

    Select one:
  34. Select all the components of the cathode

    Select one or more:
    Filament, Focusing cup
  35. The speed of electrons controls the:

    Select one:
  36. Define thermionic emission

    Select one:
  37. The positive side of the x-ray tube is the:

    Select one:
  38. Increasing the kVp will do which of the following?

    Select one:
  39. In order to produce x-rays, electrons must be:

    Select one:
  40. Define density

    Select one:
  41. Which component is the source of electrons?

    Select one:
  42. Exposure time has a __________ relationship with density.

    Select one:
  43. As kVp increases, beam penetrability:
    Select one:
  44. Define anode

    Select one:
  45. Calculate the mAs: (units in mAs)
    50 mA, 200 ms
    10 mAs
  46. Which element is used to make the filament?

    Select one:
  47. The highest energy x-ray photons produced with a 100 kVp exposure will be:

    Select one:
  48. Which has the GREATER radiographic density?
    density variations
  49. With a standard x-ray tube, ____% of the x-ray beam produced with 65 kVp is the result of bremsstrahlung interactions.

    Select one:
  50. The device that nearly surrounds the filament is the:

    Select one:
  51. With a standard x-ray tube, ____% of the x-ray beam produced with 65 kVp is the result of characteristic interactions.

    Select one:
  52. Doubling the mAs has what affect on density?

    Select one:
  53. Select all the components of the anode

    Select one or more:
    Stator, Rotor, Target
  54. Name the type of interaction shown here.
    target interactions brem

    Select one:
  55. Bremsstrahlung is German for:

    Select one:
  56. mA and time control the ________ of the x-ray beam.

    Select one:
    quantity
  57. The part of the x-ray tube that is connected to the target and causes it to turn is the:

    Select one:
  58. The quality of the x-ray beam indicates:

    Select one:
  59. A dual-focus tube has two:

    Select one:
  60. What is the name of the exact area on the anode that is struck by the electron stream?

    Select one:
  61. When making an exposure, which of the following does not occur when just the rotor, or prep button, is activated?

    Select one:
  62. Filament current is approximately:

    Select one:
    3 to 5 amperes
  63. kVp controls the _________ of the x-ray beam.

    Select one:
  64. Calculate the mAs:
    200 mA, 0.10 s
    20 mAs
  65. Bremsstrahlung interactions are associated with K-shell electrons being from its orbit.

    Select one:
  66. How much energy in an exposure is converted to x-ray photons?

    Select one:
  67. Doubling mA results in:

    Select one:
  68. What is the name of the device in a rotating anode x-ray tube that turns the rotor?

    Select one:
  69. The speed the electrons inside the x-ray tube travel is:

    Select one:


  70. According to the line focus principle, as the target angle decreases, the _______.

    Select one:
  71. To double the density of a 90 kVp exposure using only a change in kVp, what would the new kVp be? (Rounded to the nearest whole number, units in kVp)
    104 kVp
  72. Define contrast:

    Select one:
  73. Effective focal spot size refers to focal spot size as measured directly under the anode target.

    Select one:
  74. The advantage to having a focal track is that:

    Select one:
  75. As kVp increases, beam penetrability:

    Select one:
  76. Low energy photons are desirable in the x-ray beam because they contribute to image quality.

    Select one:
    False
  77. Actual focal spot size refers to the size of the area on the anode target that is exposed to electrons from the tube current

    Select one:
  78. If a person stands 3 feet from the source of exposure, receives an exposure of 16 R/min, and then moves to 6 feet from the source of exposure, what would be the new exposure rate according to the inverse square law? (in R/min)
    4 R/min
  79. Which image demonstrates a LOWER contrast?
    B
  80. Increasing the kVp will do which of the following?

    Select one:
  81. ____________ will extend  x-ray tube life.

    Select one:
  82. If the intensity of an x-ray beam at 40 inches was 100 mR, what would the intensity be at 80 inches? (Units in mR)
    25 mR
  83. If the intensity of an x-ray beam at 100 cm was 50 mR, at what distance would the intensity be at 10 mR? (Round to the nearest whole number, units in cm)
    224 cm
  84. Which image demonstrates a LONG-scale of contrast?
    B
  85. The line focus principle describes the relationship between the:

    Select one:
  86. An optimal density exposure was made at 55 kVp and 5 mAs. In order to maintain radiographich density, what would the kVp be if the mAs was changed to 2.5 mAs? (Rounded to the nearest whole number, units in kVp)
    63 kVp
  87. Which image demonstrates a SHORT-scale of contrast?
    A
  88. What focal spot size is measured directly under the anode target?

    Select one:
  89. The target angle of rotating targets typically ranges from:

    Select one:
  90. Optimal density is achieved at an SID of 40 inches using 25 mAs. The SID must be increased to 72 inches. What adjustment in mAs is needed to maintain radiographic density? (Units in mAs)
    81 mAs
  91. Which image demonstrates a HIGHER contrast?
    A
  92. What causes the anode heel effect to occur?

    Select one:
  93. Kilovoltage effects:

    Select one:
  94. If 10 mAs produced optimal density at 40", what mAs would produce the same radiographic density at 20"? (Include your units as mAs)
    2.5 mAs
  95. An optimal density image was exposed at 20 inches. If the same density exposure was made at 40 inches using 100 mAs, what was the mAs used in the original exposure? (Units in mAs)
    25 mAs
  96. Diagnostic x-ray exposures range from:

    Select one:
  97. Electrons can flow from cathode to anode or from anode to cathode during the x-ray exposure.

    Select one:
  98. A 15% increase in kilovoltage peak will have the same effect on radiographic density as doubling the mAs is known as the:

    Select one:
  99. If an optimal density image was exposed using 10 mAs at 40 inches, what mAs would produce the same density if the distance was moved to 72 inches? (Round to the nearest whole number, units in mAs)
    32 mAs
  100. The quality of the CR latent image will remain the same for up to 6 hours after exposure.

    Select one:
  101. Increasing the thickness of the intensifying screen phosphor layer:

    Select one:
    b. Increases speed, decreases recorded detail, and decreases patient dose
  102. List and SHORTLY expain 3 considerations with CR cassettes as explain in class or in the book.
    Three considerations or things to remember about CR cassettes: they slowly receive background exposure and so they should be erased if not used within 48 hours, the latent image can fade and so they should be processed within 1 hour of exposure, and CR imaging plates have a 200 screen speed which is important to know for correct techniques and especially when converting techniques from film which has different screen speeds.
  103. List 5 characteristics of good cassettes as explained in class or in the book.
    Five good characteristics of cassettes include: light-proof, light weight, rigid, radiolucent, and absorb backscatter.
  104. Direct exposure film uses 2 screens.
    Select one:
  105. The emulsion layer is filled with crystals made up of which molecules? (Choose all that apply)

    Select one or more:
    AgBr, AgI
  106. Rare earth metals are more efficient phosphors in film screens than are calcium tungstate phosphors

    Select one:
  107. Film screen phosphors today are made of:

    Select one:
    c. Rare Earth metals
  108. This image is an example of: 


    Select one:
  109. Fluorescence
    Good
  110. Phosphorescence
    Bad
  111. Match the letter to the appropriate term. 
    • Emulsion layer– B,
    • Base– D
    • Adhesive layer– C
    • Supercoat– A
  112. This formula is call the: 


    Select one:
  113. The CR latent image consists of:

    Select one:
  114. What is the MAIN purpose for intensifying screens?

    Select one:
  115. In a screened cassette, direct exposure of x-rays exposes the film more than light produced by the intensifying screens

    Select one:
  116. What is the effect of the presence of a reflective layer within the intensifying screen?

    Select one:
  117. Define "screen speed"

    Select one:
  118. Is this image single emulsion or double emulsion film?


    Select one:
  119. Define "film speed"

    Select one:
  120. Every type of darkroom safelight is safe for every kind of film

    Select one:
  121. Define "manifest image"

    Select one:
  122. Define "latent image"

    Select one:
    c. image that exists after the film has been exposed but before processing
  123. What is achieved when the color of light emitted by an intensifying screen matches the color of light a film responds to?

    Select one:
  124. Which of the following is not a component of the CR IP?

    Select one:
  125. What is this layer called? 



    Select one:
  126. The front or tube side of radiographic cassettes should be made of a material that:

    Select one:
  127. Choose all of the following that affect screen speed:
    Select one or more:
    Thickness of phosphorus layer, Size of phosphorus crystals, Presence of a reflective layer, Presence of an absorbing layer, Presence of absorbing dyes in the phosphorus layer
  128. Answer the following question. (Do not include any units, for there are none)
    25
  129. Which of the following is not part of a CR reader unit?

    Select one:
  130. Spectral Sensitivity
    • Color of light which a particular film is most sensitive.
    • General blue or green sensitive.
  131. Spectral Emission
    Color of light produced by a particular intensifying screen.
  132. Spectral Matching
    Matching proper film color sensitivity to screen color emission.
  133. Crossover
    • Refers to light that has been produced by an intensifying screen that exposes on the emulsion and then crossed ove the base layer of the film to expose the other emulsion.
    • Unique to double emulsion film.
    • Decreases recorded detail.
  134. Halation
    • Image being recorded on the film by reflected light that exposes the emulsion a second time.
    • Causes light scatter, less contrast, image distortion, less clarity.
  135. Luminescence
    • Emission of light from the screen when stimulated by radiation.
    • Two forms: fluorescence and phosphorescence.
  136. Fluorescence
    Ability of phosphors to emit visible light only while exposed to x-rays.
  137. Phosphorescence
    • Occurs when screen phosphors continue to emit light after the x-ray exposure has stopped.
    • Also called screen lag or afterglow.
    • Is bad because it increases density.

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