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An __ is a hydrocarbon that contains only single bonds. They are the simplest and least __ class of organic compounds because they only contain __ and __, and they have no __.
- sp3 hybridized carbon
- reactive functional groups
Alkanes contain no __ or __ and no __. They are __, and they are __ and __ as well.
- double or triple bonds
- heteroatoms (atoms other than H and C)
- poor acids and bases
- poor electrophiles nad nucleophiles
We classify hydrocarbons according to their __.
A hydrocarbon with a carbon carbon double bond is __. Triple is __. Those with aromatic rings are called __.
- aromatic hydrocarbon
A hydrocarbon with no double or triple bonds is __ because it has the maximum number of bonded hydrogens. Another way to describe alkanes is as the class of __.
- saturated hydrocarbons
Any isomers of the first 20 unbranched alkanes have the __ even though __.
- same molecular formulas
- their structures are different
--CH2-- groups are __ and are terminated at each end by a __ in the alkanes.
- methylene groups
- hydrogen atom
General formula for the unbranched alkanes?
These alkanes differ only by __.
- the number of methylene groups in the chain
A series of compounds, like the unbranched alkanes, that differ only by the number of __, is called a __, and the individual members of the series are called __.
- -CH2- groups
- homologous series
Although CnH2n+1 is used for unbranched n- alkanes, it applies to __ as well. Any isomer of one of these n-alkanes has __.
- branched alkanes
- the same molecular formula
The names __(4)__ have historical roots. From __ on, alkanes are named using the Greek word for hte number of carbon atoms, plus the suffix __ to identify the molecule as an alkane.
Most alkanes have __ and we need a way of naming all the different isomers.
Example with C4H10.
- structural isomers
- unbranched: butane
- branched: isobutane (isomer of butane)
The three isomers of C5H12 are __
These names are __, meaning historical names arising from common usage.
- unbranched: pentane
- second branched: isopentane
- most branched: neopentane
- common names or trivial names
True or False:
Common names can easily describe the larger, more complicated molecules having many isomers.
True or False:
The number of isomers for any molecular formula shrinks rapidly as the number of carbons increase.
What international group developed a detailed system as the standard __.
- IUPAC (Int'l Union of Pure and Applied Chem)
- IUPAC rules
The __ are accepted throughout the world as the standard method for naming organic compounds. The names that are generated using this system are called __ or __.
- IUPAC rules
- IUPAC names
- systematic names
IUPAC Rule 1:
find hte longest continuous chain of carbon atoms and use the name of this chain as the base name of the compound
The groups attached to the main chain are called __. Why?
- they are substituted (in place of a hydrogen atom) on the main chain.
What happens when there are two longest chains of equal length?
use the chain with the greater number of substituents as the main chain
IUPAC Rule 2:
Number the longest chain, beginning with the end of the chain nearest a substituent
If each end had a substituent the same distance in, what do we do?
start at the end nearer the second branch point
IUPAC Rule 3:
Name the substituent groups attached to the longest chain as alkyl groups. Give the location of each alkyl group by the number of the main-chain carbon atom to which it is attached
Alkyl groups are named by __?
replacing the ane suffix of the alkane name with -yl
The names of the __ and the __ groups are based on the __ of the carbon attom attached to the main chain.
- tertiary butyl
In the sec- butyl grop, the carbon atom bonded to the main chain is __ or bonded to two other carbon atoms.
In the tert-butyl group, it is __, or bonded to three other carbons.
In both the n-butyl group and the isobutyl group, the carbon atoms bonded to the main chain are __, bonded to only one other carbon atom.
IUPAC Rule 4
When two or more substituents are present, list them in alphabetic order. When two or more of the same alkyl substitent are present, use the prefixes di, tri, tetra, etc. to avoid having to name the alkyl group twice. Include a position number for each substituent, even if it means repeating a number more than once
__ can be named just like alkanes, with the halogen atom treated as a __. __ are named __
- halogen substituents
- fluoro, chloro, bromo, and iodo
Complex __ are named by a systematic method using hte logest __ as the __. The __ is numbered beginning with the carbon atom (the __) bonded to the main chain. The substituents on the base alkyl group are listed with appropriate numbers and parentheses are used to set off the name of the __.
- alkyl groups
- alkyl chain
- base alkyl group
- base alkyl group
- head carbon
- complex alkyl group