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consistsof the bones of the head (skull), neck (hyoid bone and cervical vertebrae), andtrunk (ribs, sternum, vertebrae, and sacrum).
supraspinous fossa and infraspinous fossa
note that they should not be confused with splenius in any way.
supraglenoid tubercle and infraglenoid tubercle
note that they are tubercle and not fossa
you see both the greater and the lesser tuberosity when:
you look anteriorly
difference between tubercle and tuberocity
tubercle is like infraglenoid tubercle while tuberosity is like greater, lesser or deltoid tuberosity.
intertubercular (bicipital) groove starts from...
the middle of the greater and the lesser tuberosity
what are the anterior extrinsic muscles?
- pectoralis major
- pectoralis minor
- serratus anterior
long thoracic is the nerve to...
serratus anterior which is an anterior extrinsic muscle.
thoracodorsal is the nerve to...
the nerve to posterior serratus muscles are
T1-T3 and T9-T12 intercostal (ventral rami) nerves.
pectoralis and pectoral
pectoralis is muscle but pectoral is nerve
pectoralis major has attachment to sternum?
which two anterior extrinsic muscles can protract the scapula?
serratus anterior and pectoralis minor
which extrinsic anterior muscles is attached to scapula through the caracoid process?
which extrinsic anterior muscle is connected to scapula through the medial border of scapula?
For every 2° of abduction at the glenohumeral joint, there is1° of scapular rotation
together they make it 3 degrees.
name all of the intrinsic muscles of the shoulder (note that intrinsic muscles of the shoulder is different form intrinsic muscles of the back).
- teres major
- rotator cuff muscles (teres minor, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis)
what is the major abductor of humerus and what initiates the abducation?
the major abductor is deltoid while supraspinatus has to initiate the abduction first.
teres minor relationships:
inferior to infraspinatus and deep to teres major, also superficial to fibrous capsule of the shoulder joint.
The critical zone is an area of vascular anastomoses within the rotator cuff. This anastomosis is alternately ischemic or hyperemic depending on whether there is tension on the cuff. Clinical Note: This zone is often the site of degeneration, calcium deposits, and tears.
bordered by teres minor and teres major and lateral head of triceps and long (medial) head of triceps. it is the space through which the auxillary nerve passes as well as the posterior circumflex humeral artery.
most important note ever: what you read here has nothing to do with quadrangular space
Relationship: The suprascapular nerve and artery are found deep to both thesupraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles. They travel together from the supraspinous fossa, then around thescapular spine, and then to the infaspinous fossa.
name joints of the shoulder girdle:
The joints of the shoulder include the glenohumeral, acromioclavicular, and sternoclavicular joints. In addition, the sternocostal joints and costovertebral joints provide the functional linkage of the upper limb to the support of the vertebral column. There are also two “articulations” which are not true joints that are sometimes referred to as “joints.” These are the suprahumeral “joint” and the scapulothoracic “joint.”
is synovial, very flexible and hence most of the time dislocated and is reinforced by rotator cuff tendons as well as by genohumeral ligaments.
what is the foramen of weitbrecht?
The“Foramen ofWeitbrecht”represents a weakness in the joint capsule between the superior and middleglenohumeral ligaments. In an anteriordislocation, the head of the humerus penetrates through this weak area.
what is glenoid labrum?
The glenoid labrum is a fibrocartilagenousring that surrounds the glenoid fossa and helps deepen the socket of theshoulder joint
acromioclavicular joint is supported by coracoclavicular ligament
scapular anastomosis includes the following arteries:
subclavian, third part of auxillary and intercostal.
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