Pharmacology - Chapter 11

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Pharmacology - Chapter 11
2013-09-23 23:47:07
vet tech pharmacology

Pharmacology - Dr. Younger
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  1. chemical to kill or prevent growth of a microorganism on LIVING TISSUES
  2. Slime that prevents  the disinfecting agent
    from penetrating to reach the bacteria
  3. Alcohol denatures the serum exudate rich in proteins on an open wound forming
  4. chemicals that kill or prevent growth of microorganisms on INANIMATE objects
  5. virus surrounded by a lipid envelope
    enveloped virus
  6. chemical that kills microorganism > viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa
  7. Chlorine compounds
  8. virus with NO ENVELOPE
    naked virus
  9. Chemical that kills microbes
  10. Chemical that inhibits growth of microbes
  11. Medicine made by dissolving a drug in alcohol >> topical
  12. chemicals that kill viruses
  13. chemicals that kill protozoans
  14. Antiseptics/disinfectants that reduce the number of microorganisms to a safe level
  15. Chemical agents that kill or prevent growth on inanimate objects
  16. means “kill microbial spores”
  17. acquired during a period of hospitalization
  18. Glycocalyx coating over surgical implants that prev. antiseptics from reaching the
  19. Antiseptics or disinfectants that destroy all microorganisms
  20. Means “kill fungi”
  21. Antiseptic combined with soap
  22. means “kill bacteria”
  23. Most commonly used antiseptic/disinfectant in a vet clinic. Precipitates in hard
    water, can delay healing by stopping fibroblasts
  24. type of disinfectant commonly found in hand soaps, mouthwash and Lysol. Members here
    can cause teratogenic and mutagenic issues in humans
  25. common antiseptic found in most surgical scrubs, inactivated by organic material, can
    exist as a tincture
  26. effective against naked viruses
  27. Virucidal against enveloped viruses but not naked viruses. Inactivated by soaps. Ex:
    Benzalkonium chloride
    quaternary ammonium compound
  28. Must remain in contact with site for several minutes to prod. Bactericidal effect
  29. active antiseptic ingredient that is combined with a carrier such as polyvinyl
    pyrrolidine that releases over time
  30. Disinfectant used to sterilize equipment that cannot be heat sterilized
  31. Bacteria that is more susceptible to disinfectants and antiseptics than the spore form
    of bacteria
    vegetative form
  32. Color-fast bleaches have chlorine as their active ingredient. True or False
    False. Color-fast bleaches have no chlorine despite the “bleach” designation. Color-fast bleaches tend to be peroxide-based compounds (like hydrogen peroxide)
  33. A microbiostatic agent is appropriate to disinfect the surgery table because they tend to be less corrosive than microbicidal agents. True or False
    False. Static agents only inhibit the pathogen or microorganism without actually killing it. To kill it requires the action of the immune system. Inanimate objects like a surgery table do not have an immune system, thus the disease-causing agents would not be killed. Disinfectants need to be microbicidal.
  34. The vegetative form of bacteria is more susceptible to disinfectants and antiseptics than the spore form of bacteria. True or False
  35. Generally applying an antiseptic to a surgery site before cleaning the site of dirt and debris is better so the bacteria in the debris can be killed before cleaning. True or False
    False. Organic material, such as dirt, secretions, feces, and blood, often reacts with many antiseptic or disinfectants and reduces their effectiveness. Thus it is much better to scrub a site with a soap or soap/antiseptic combination to reduce the amount of organic material present prior to applying the antiseptic agent itself. This is why at least three cleanings of a surgical site with a surgical scrub compound are recommended
  36. Swabbing an injection site and then administering the injection does not provide
    sufficient antisepsis. True or False
    True. It takes several seconds or even a few minutes for the alcohol to produce a  bactericidal effect. In addition, if there is dirt or organic debris at the site, most of the alcohol may be inactivated
  37. Phenols are components of common household cleansers such as Lysol. Therefore soaking a bird perch in a phenol compound or disinfecting a reptile cage with spray-on phenol disinfectant should be effective in controlling bacterial growth on these objects. True or False
    True for the use of phenols to control gram-positive bacteria (less effective against gram-negatives). But, because the phenol residue can irritate the animal’s skin with prolonged contact, the bird perch or reptile cage would have to be thoroughly rinsed of any phenol to avoid dermal irritation or ulceration
  38. Hexachlorophene and chlorhexidine are similar compounds. True or False
    False. These two terms are often confused because they both have “hex” and “chloro” in their names. Hexachlorophene is a phenol and has a history of neurotoxicity. Chlorhexidine is a biguanide and is widely and safely used in veterinary medicine as a disinfectant and antiseptic
  39. Once per ounce, iodophors tend to have less irritation and last longer than free iodine compounds, but they do not achieve as high a concentration of iodine at the disinfecting as iodine compounds in the free form. True or False
    True. The longer acting effect of iodophors is from the slow release of iodine over time. This is less irritating, lasts longer, but will not achieve as high of a concentration of iodine as the same amount of free iodine compounds because the iodophor stretches out its release of iodine over a longer period
  40. You are reading the insert of a new disinfectant and you see a statement that identifies the disinfectant as a cytotoxic agent. This sounds good because that means it will kill more things, and that is what you want in a disinfectant. Or is it?
    Cytotoxic means the compound is toxic to cells. And the cells to which it is toxic are typically the animal’s own cells. Many disinfectants can be cytotoxic at certain levels. It is therefore important to avoid use of disinfectants as antiseptics and to make sure the appropriate concentration of antiseptic is used on tissue.
  41. The standard procedure in your veterinary clinic is to use alcohol to clean a rectal thermometer used on dogs with parvovirus as a means of disinfection. Critique this method of disinfection.
    Parvovirus is a naked virus and hence is less susceptible to antiseptics and disinfectants such as alcohol, iodine, or chlorhexidine. If any fecal material containing parvovirus were left on the thermometer, the presence of alcohol would not inactivate the virus. Potentially the virus could be introduced rectally into the next animal on which the thermometer is used.
  42. Chlorine disinfection of a parvovirus-contaminated metal surface (such as examination table or stainless steel cage) needs time but should not be used for too long. What is the truth behind this statement?
    Chlorines need time in contact with the parvovirus to inactive it. A single swipe or short contact is not sufficient. However, in the case of a metal surface, chlorine is very corrosive and cause pitting of the metal surfaces with prolonged exposure. So the chlorine has to be left on for 3 minutes (approximately) to kill the virus but needs to be thoroughly rinsed after that to reduce corrosion.
  43. A chlorine residue is left on a concrete or nonmetal surface where a parvovirus-infected animal is being housed. Will the residue destroy parvovirus that lands on it?
    The residue is likely not of high enough concentration to eliminate the virus. Second, and more importantly in this case, the residue can be very irritating to the skin. Thus the standing animal will get irritated foot pads and the recumbent animal will get skin irritation from the part of the body in contact with the chlorine residue. The chlorine needs to be thoroughly rinsed off after its application to any surface.
  44. Can color-fast bleaches be used to control parvovirus?
    No. Peroxides are not virucidal.
  45. Many antiseptics and disinfectants come packaged in concentrated solutions that have to be diluted. Why is distilled water or nonionized water better than regular tap water for diluting some disinfecting compounds?
    Some of the compounds, like chlorhexidine, are precipitated and may be partially inactivated by the minerals found in “hard water” such as found in tap water.
  46. Rinsing soap from a site of antisepsis is also important before application of the antiseptic agent. Why?
    Chlorhexidine and quaternary ammonium compounds may be inactivated by soaps and detergents.
  47. Why is chlorhexidine supposed to be good for skin, oral, and dental procedures?
    Chlorhexidine binds to skin, oral mucous membranes, and teeth and has residual activity for several hours.