Also called one-on-one interview, Usually 20 minutes to 1 hour, Nonstructured, Interviewer will often probe to get more feedback (see following slide for probing), Session is usually
8-10 participants, Respondents are
recruited through a screener questionnaire, Lasts about 2 hours, Always taped or videotaped to assist analysis, Often held in front of two-way mirrors, Online focus groups are growing
Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique (ZMET) combines collage research and metaphor analysis to bring to the surface the mental models and the major themes or constructs that drive consumer thinking and behavior.
physiological needs, safety and security needs, social needs, ego needs, self-actualization
trio of needs
Power, Affiliation, Achievement
qualitative: metaphor analysis, storytelling, word association and sentence completion
showing pictures and listening to what the consumer says about them
Thematic Apprehension Tests
Personality reflects individual differences, is consistent and enduring, can change
Unconscious needs or drives are at the heart of human motivation
Social relationships are fundamental to the formation and development of personality
Quantitative approach to personality as a set of psychological traits
Warehouse of primitive or instinctual needs for which individual seeks immediate satisfaction
Individual’s internal expression of society’s moral and ethical codes of conduct
Individual’s conscious control that balances the demands of the id and superego
A personality trait that reflects the degree of rigidity a person displays toward the unfamiliar and toward information that is contrary to his or her own established beliefs
rely on own values when evaluating products, Innovators
look to others, less likely to be innovators
Optimum Stimulation Level
A personality trait that measures the level or amount of novelty or complexity that individuals seek in their personal experiences, High OSL consumers tend to accept risky and novel products more readily than low OSL consumers.
The need for varied, novel, and complex sensations and experience. And the willingness to take social and physical risks for the sensations.
VaMeasures a consumer’s degree of variety seeking. Examples include: Exploratory Purchase Behavior, Use Innovativeness, Vicarious Exploration
Need For Cognition
A person’s craving for enjoyment of thinking, Individual with high NFC more likely to respond to ads rich in product information
Different Self Images
Actual Self Image, Ideal Self Image, Social Self Image, Ideal Social Self-Image, Expected Self Image, Out-to Self
is the immediate and direct response of the sensory organs to stimuli, stimulus is any unit of input to any of the senses.
lowest level where senses pick something up, varies by individual
when consumers get used to a sensation. used to a product, ad, etc
Minimal difference that can be detected between two similar stimuli, Just Noticeable Difference, the stronger the initial stimulus, the greater the additional intensity needed for the second stimulus to be perceived as different.
consumers subconsciously which of the stimuli they are going to perceive. depends on a previous experience or motives at the time