Motivation - Chapter 5

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Author:
athorne
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236656
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Motivation - Chapter 5
Updated:
2013-09-24 00:18:53
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psyc 385 motivation emotion
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Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations
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  1. Intrinsic Motivation (IM)
    • the inherent propensity to engage one's interests and to exercise one's capacities and, in doing so, to seek out and master optimal challenges
    • present moment
  2. Three forms of IM
    • stimulation
    • knowledge
    • achievement
  3. Persistence
    higher intrinsic motivation means that a person will spend longer working on a task
  4. Creativity
    this ability is enhanced through intrinsic motivation
  5. Conceptual Understanding/High-Quality Learning
    • enhanced comprehension and deeper learning occurs when one is intrinsically motivated
    • information is thought about and integrated in a flexible, conceptual ways
  6. Optimal Functioning and Well-Being
    pursuing intrinsic goals lead to better functioning and greater self-actualization, greater subjective vitality, less anxiety and depression, greater self-esteem, and higher-quality interpersonal relationships.
  7. Extrinsic Motivation (EM)
    • arises from some consequence that is separate from the activity itself
    • an environmentally created reason to initiate or persist in an action
    • future anticipation
  8. Operant conditioning
    the process by which a person learns how to operate effectively in the environment
  9. Incentive
    • environmental event that attracts or repels a person toward or away from initiating a particular course of action
    • always precede behaviour
    • create an expectation that attractive or unattractive consequences are forthcoming
  10. Consequences
    follow behaviour and increase or decrease the persistence of behaviour
  11. Reinforcer
    • any extrinsic event that increases behaviour
    • decreases drive, decreases arousal, increases arousal, is attractive, produces pleasure, provides an opportunity to do a high-frequency behaviour
  12. Positive Reinforcer
    any environmental stimulus that, when presented, increases the future probability of the desired behaviour
  13. Negative Reinforcers
    any environmental stimulus that, when removed, increases the future probability of the desired behaviour
  14. Escape Behaviours
    a behaviour that removes us from an aversive stimulus
  15. Avoidance Behaviour
    a behaviour that prevents an aversive stimulus from occurring
  16. Punisher
    any environmental stimulus that, when presented, decreases the future probability of the undesired behaviour
  17. Response cost
    suppresses behaviour by imposing the cost of losing some attractive resources if one engages in the undesirable behaviour
  18. Rewards
    • any offering from one person given to another person in exchange for their service or achievement
    • not all rewards are successful (ie. increase behaviour)
    • no effect on IM for uninteresting tasks
  19. Do Punishers Work?
    • immediate compliance
    • side effects of negative emotionality, impaired relationship, and negative modelling of effective coping strategies
  20. Hidden costs of reward
    • undermines future intrinsic motivation
    • interferes with deeper learning, seeking optimal challenges, creative thinking, and conceptual understanding, development of autonomous self-regulation
    • perceived locus of causality becomes more external
  21. Unexpected and (some) verbal rewards
    • do not undermine external motivation
    • verbal rewards give more information about competence
  22. Tangible rewards
    • no information on competence
    • meaning is interpreted by the receiver
    • typically undermines IM
  23. Feedback
    • undermines IM if intention is controlling and reminds recipient of controlling aspects
    • does not undermine IM if it is informational and gives sense of competence or ways to improve competence
  24. Cognitive Evaluation Theory
    • external events affect not only a person's behaviour but also their psychological needs
    • external events that promote an internal perceived locus of causality promote intrinsic motivation because they satisfy the need for autonomy
    • external events that increase perceived competence promote intrinsic motivation
    • the relative alliance of whiter an event is mostly controlling or mostly informational determines its effects on IM and EM
  25. Amotivation
    a state in which the person is neither intrinsically nor extrinsically motivated
  26. External Regulation
    • behaviours are performed to obtain a reward or to satisfy some external demand
    • difficult time beginning a task without external prompt
  27. Introjected Regulation
    • the person acts as a proxy for the external environment, emotionally rewarding and punishing themself
    • partial internalization of external pressure
  28. Identified Regulation
    • mostly internalized and autonomous extrinsic motivation
    • voluntary acceptance of the merits and utility of a belief or behaviour because it is seen as personally important or useful
    • comes about because the rationale behind uninteresting activities is explained
  29. Integrated Regulation
    • process through which individuals fully transform their identifies values and behaviours into the self
    • self-examination necessary to prong new ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving into an unconflicted congruence without he self's preexisting ways
  30. Interest
    • a topic-specific motivational state that arises out of attraction to a particular domain of activity
    • enhances attention, effort, and learning
  31. Situational interest
    triggered by appealing external events and exists as a short-term attraction to an activity
  32. Individual interest
    • stable and content-specific
    • develops over time as an enduring personal disposition

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