Inflammation, Infection, and Immunity

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  1. The patient in early labor says to the nurse: “I will pass on protection from diseases and the baby will not ever need any shots.” The best response by the nurse should be:

    A. “Babies are born with IgG, an antibody that crosses the placenta, but it only protects the baby briefly.”
    B. “Yes, immediate antibody immunity from the mother is the first line of defense against disease for babies.”
    C. “Babies are born with innate (natural) immunity at birth.”
    D. “Yes, the mother passes on cell-mediated immunity.”
    A. Babies acquire antibodies from their mother which lasts only a few months.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. The school nurse starts a clean-up campaign at a local elementary school in an effort to combat some of the allergens that cause one of the most common allergic response disorders, which is:

    A. contact dermatitis.
    B. urticaria.
    C. asthma.
    D. anaphylaxis.
    C. Fungi are principal allergens which can trigger respiratory allergic responses such as asthma.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. The nurse is discussing the body’s first and second lines of defense against infection with a community group. The first line of defense includes which of the following?

    A. Sweat
    B. Teeth
    C. T lymphocytes
    D. White blood cells
    A. The sweat glands excrete an antimicrobial enzyme.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. The nurse explains that medication being given to a client with a severe inflammatory response mimics a hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex. This hormone is:

    A. aldosterone.
    B. cortisol.
    C. testosterone.
    D. histamine.
    B. Cortisol slows the release of antihistamine and stabilizes lysosomal membranes.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. The nurse explains that with the exposure to an antigen, the initiator of the inflammatory response is the presence of histamine, which is released by the:

    A. basophils.
    B. eosinophils.
    C. monocytes.
    D. neutrophils.
    A. Basophil release histamine.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. The nurse is bathing an immunodeficient patient who is suffering from Cryptococcus infestation. The organism is classified as a:

    A. protozoa.
    B. virus.
    C. fungus.
    D. bacteria.
    C. Cryptococcus fungal infections can be life threatening.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. When a mosquito or a fly carries an organism that infects another living organism, this mode of transmission is infection via:

    A. a vector.
    B. ingestion.
    C. a common vehicle.
    D. direct excretion.
    A. Vector-borne diseases are carried from one host to another. Part of the life cycle of the pathogen occurs in the body of the fly, mosquito, or tick.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. The home health nurse is teaching the family that the most effective method to control the spread of communicable disease is which of the following?

    A. Isolate the infected person from all contact with noninfected persons
    B. Administer prophylactic antibiotics to the rest of the family
    C. Vigorously petition the community health department to increase spraying
    D. Demonstrate and monitor a return demonstration of good hand washing technique by the family.
    D. Good hand washing is the cornerstone of infection control.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. The home health nurse recommends air conditioner duct cleaning as a precaution against diseases caused by:

    A. protozoa.
    B. fungi.
    C. viruses.
    D. bacteria.
    B. Air blowing into a room may be the mode of transfer of fungi spores, which have remained dormant in the duct during nonuse.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. The school nurse cautions a group of parents about children playing barefoot on dirt that may lead them to be exposed to infections caused by:

    A. helminthes.
    B. mycoplasms.
    C. protozoa.
    D. rickettsiae.
    A. Worms in the dirt seek entry through the foot skin and into the blood circulation, where they are carried to the lungs, coughed up into the mouth, and swallowed into the GI tract, where they cause serious infections. Barefooted children who do not have proper hygiene are at risk for these worm infections.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. The large, heavy, and older adult patient, post stroke, develops an infected decubitus on the sacrum during the hospital stay. When the patient goes home, about 2 weeks later, the patient returns to the hospital with pneumonia. The distinction between these two infections is which of the following?

    A. The decubitus infection was transmitted from other patients on the unit, but the pneumonia was transmitted from a neighbor visiting when the patient was at home.
    B. The decubitus is considered to be caused by protozoa, whereas the pneumonia is termed unpreventable because of the size of the patient.
    C. The decubitus is termed nosocomial and the pneumonia is termed community-acquired.
    D. The decubitus and pneumonia are caused by the same host.
    C. Because the decubitus developed during the stay in a health care facility, it is classified as nosocomial. Because the patient did not have pneumonia when he left the facility, it is classified as community-acquired.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. The home health nurse, on a visit to administer the fifth in a series of 10 antibiotic doses, is told that the patient is now complaining about a bothersome vaginal discharge. The nurse will communicate the problem to arrange for medication and teaches the patient that this condition is probably the result of:

    A. sexual contact with another infected person.
    B. poor genital hygiene—not changing underwear often enough.
    C. superinfection response to the antibiotic.
    D. allergy to the soap, or soap products, used in the area.
    C. Antibiotics frequently wipe out “good” bacteria and cause other bacteria to overgrow, causing the vaginitis.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. The nurse assesses that the patient who has acquired a nosocomial infection is most likely the patient with:

    A. an abdominal abscess following a ruptured appendix.
    B. lice and nits that have come from the Emergency Department.
    C. a urinary infection after the insertion of a Foley catheter.
    D. a 2-day postoperative hip replacement foot fungus.
    C. Iatrogenic or nosocomial infections are those acquired during the hospital stay. Urinary catheters are frequently the source of such infections. Abscesses frequently follow a ruptured appendix; lice and athlete’s foot are long-term conditions not caused by hospital interventions.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. A community picnic is held. Following this, a number of the attendees become ill. The pathogen in this case was acquired via:

    A. common vehicle.
    B. airborne transmission.
    C. indirect contact.
    D. vector transmission.
    A. Food at the picnic that was shared in common became the vehicle for transmission.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. The nurse caring for an immunosuppressed patient is diligent about protecting the patient from infection. When visitors come in, in addition to having them put on isolation garb, the nurse would prohibit them bringing:

    A. a battery-operated DVD player.
    B. books.
    C. boxed candy.
    D. potted plants.
    D. The soil in the flower pot is a reservoir for bacteria and fungi.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. The parent asks the nurse to explain which type of drugs will not be used in the medical treatment of their child’s allergic reaction to bee stings.

    A. Cardiotonics and anticholinergics
    B. Antihistamines and salicylates
    C. Bronchodilators and corticosteroids
    D. Diuretics and sedatives
    C. The immune response is dampened by corticosteroids.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. A patient has had several increasingly severe allergic reactions during last year’s pollen season. This year, the patient comes regularly to the office to receive some antigen injections. The nurse teaches that these will:

    A. increase tolerance to the antigen.
    B. combat infection brought on by the allergic response.
    C. act as a steroid to lessen the allergic response.
    D. decrease the production of the antibodies.
    A. Injections of increasing amounts of minute doses of the antigen will desensitize the body against the antigen.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. A patient who is receiving daily steroids for control of a condition calls the nurse to ask advice about whether a small child who has been exposed to influenza should come and visit because she has not had any symptoms. An appropriate response by the office nurse would be:

    A. “Take the child who is not sick to her own doctor and ask this question first.”
    B. “It would be up to the patient. Plan not to get overtired with a small child running and bouncing around.”
    C. “Yes, let the child visit. There is no reason not to visit, because this child is not sick.”
    D. “No, the child should not visit. Infectious diseases are often most communicable in the short period before the child actually becomes ill.”
    D. Children, especially those who have been exposed to a contagious disease but are not yet symptomatic, are still very contagious, especially to the immunocompromised patient.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. The patient with the diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection asks what has caused the diarrhea. The nurse responds that it is caused by:

    A. long-term antibiotic therapy.
    B. inflammatory response.
    C. protozoal infection.
    D. fecal–oral contamination.
    A. Superinfections such as Clostridium difficile are caused by long-term antibiotic therapy, which kills all the natural flora of the bowel and causes diarrhea.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. The patient receiving a large IM dose of antibiotic was asked to please wait 20 to 30 minutes before checking out. The reason for this request is that:

    A. the staff wants to make sure that the patient has time to pay for the services delivered that day.
    B. the nurse always forgets to ask patients about allergies before administering the antibiotic.
    C. antibiotics are a common source of severe allergic reactions within the first few minutes after injection.
    D. the office staff needs to make sure that it was the right medicine before the patient leaves.
    C. Antibiotic administration is a common cause of anaphylaxis. The patient is asked to wait so that if this condition occurs, the patient will be with medical personnel to reverse it.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. After receiving an injection of penicillin, the patient undergoes an anaphylactic reaction. The nurse should immediately:

    A. administer oxygen.
    B. cover with several blankets.
    C. prepare fluids to combat shock.
    D. notify the charge nurse.
    A. The first intervention should be to supply oxygen. Notification of the charge nurse and the administration of fluids to combat hypovolemia will come afterward. Covering with blankets would increase the vasodilation and increase the shock.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has issued new guidelines for infection control. Nursing care plans for patients with infection mainly address which protocol?

    A. Placement of needles and sharps
    B. Disease-specific precautions
    C. Standard Precautions guidelines
    D. The manner in which clean gloves are worn
    C. The CDC has issued new guidelines for Standard Precautions for infection control. These cover a, b, and d. Only answer c is all-inclusive.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. The nurse is aware that wound healing can be enhanced with the administration of vitamin:

    A. B.
    B. C.
    C. A.
    D. D.
    B. The addition of vitamin C and Zinc to the medication regimen can hasten wound healing.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. The patient is hospitalized with cryptococcal pneumonia and AIDS. The nurse knows that the Standard Precautions for this patient will include the most important precaution. Which of the following is correct?

    A. Needles and sharps should be placed in puncture-resistant containers on the medicine cart out of the room.
    B. Hands are washed before and after gloving.
    C. Mouth-to-mouth resuscitation must be performed immediately unless the patient is a “No Code.”
    D. Once gloves are put on, they do not need to be changed until care is finished.
    B. Hand washing before and between care in areas of contamination is necessary.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. The organs involved in immunity include the tonsils, spleen, lymph nodes, and:

    A. lungs.
    B. liver.
    C. pancreas.
    D. periosteum.
    B. The liver filters the blood and plays a part in the immune response by the production of globulins and other chemicals involved in the immune response.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. The nurse explains that the difference between medical asepsis and surgical asepsis is that medical asepsis requires:

    A. that no nonsterile product come into contact with the patient.
    B. hand washing with antimicrobial soap for 3 minutes.
    C. elimination of all microorganisms.
    D. good hand washing technique.
    C. Surgical asepsis is sterile technique. Medical asepsis is considered a clean technique.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. The school nurse is required to report to the health department all cases of (select all that apply):

    1. rubella.
    2. Lyme disease.
    3. pediculosis.
    4. salmonella.
    5. Clostridium difficile.
    • 1, 2, 4
    • Rubella, Lyme disease, and salmonella are all reportable. Lice and Clostridium difficile are not reportable.
  28. The nurse assesses a high eosinophil count in a pediatric patient. The nurse recognizes that this elevation is an indicator of ____________________.
  29. Persons with HIV have fallen victim to PCP, Pneumocystis jiroveci, a serious pulmonary infection caused by a ____________________.
  30. The nurse reminds the patient who is to undergo hyperbaric oxygen therapy that the clothing worn into the chamber must be made of ____________________.
  31. Prioritize the events of an antibody-mediated immunity response.

    1. Antibodies seek out and bind with specific antigen.
    2. Antigen binds to a B lymphocyte.
    3. Circulating antibody-antigen complexes are destroyed.
    4. Antibodies are produced.
    5. Antibodies are replenished.
    • 2, 4, 1, 3, 5
    • Antigen binds to a B lymphocyte and antibodies are produced for that specific antigen. Antibodies seek out and bind with the specific antigen when it is reintroduced to the organism and bind with them. These circulating antigen-antibody complexes are targeted and destroyed by phagocytes. Antibodies are continually replenished in most cases.
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Inflammation, Infection, and Immunity
Inflammation, Infection, and Immunity
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