Policy exam 1
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Social trends of the 1970's
Vietnam war continues, Watergate,inflation and unemployment, growing criticism of the welfare state, women s liberation movement, and birth of neo-conservatism.
What year was the substance control act and what was it?
In 1970 the fed govt. regulated the importation, possession, and distribution of certain drugs. The "war on drugs" started.
What was the Social security amendment of 1972 and what policy change did it make?
The amendment changed public assistance for older adults and people with disabilities from a state-level program to a fed program. This was overseen by the Social security admin.
What significant social welfare shift does the amendment to the Social security act of 1972 represent?
The change from state to fed program policy represents the federal governments willingness to step in and help its citizens. This is something that the fed's were not normally wanting to do.
What is Title 20, what year did it begin, and what is it most commonly called today?
- Title 20 is an amendment in 1974 to the social security act. It consolidates fed $ provided directly to the states, on the basis on pop., to help them achieve a range of policy goals.
- child care, child welfare, elder care, drug abuse prevention and treatment, etc.
What is the child abuse prevention and treatment act and what year was it started?
1974. 1st fed policy on child abuse. Partially fed funded but otherwise funded by state budgets. Each state was mandated to create a child neglect system. (CAPTA)
What are the social welfare trends of the 1970's?
Social welfare policy changes since the later 1970's have been mostly small and generally in the direction of services being provided by the states or private sector.
What are the societal trends of the 1980's?
- An increased focus on private interests.
- Emphasis on personal responsibility and personal failings.
- Strong emergence of cultural conservatism among Republicans.
What ear was Reagan president?
What were Reagan's three primary social welfare policy goals?
- Shift res/power related to social welfare from fed. to state and local.
- Rely on the private sector to meet social needs.
- Reduce fed. programs and spending for social welfare initiatives.
What year was the Family Support Act and what key changes did it make to Aid to Families with Dependent children?
- 1988. Focused on restricting AFDC benefits and eligibility.
- Mandated AFDC receivers to work.
- Emphasized indi. self-sufficiency and reducing public assistance.
- Did allow states to count edu. as work activity.
What are the social trends of the 1990's?
- Economic fluctuation, ending the budget surplus.
- Political diversities.
- Public support of govt. continues to decline.
- Strong emergence of neoliberalism among Dems.
- Persian Gulf War (1990-1991).
What year did the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) enact and what is it?
- 1990. Made a huge impact on the country.
- Prohibits discrimination based on disability and placed a clear definition on what disability meant.
- Included the right to full access to places of public accommodation.
What year was the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) enacted and what is it?
- Allows most employees to take up to 12 wk's unpaid leave a year due to illness or to care for a sick family member.
What year was the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) enacted? What programs ended and which one began?
- Combines the govt. funds from AFDC, JOBS, and emergency help programs to create TANF.
- Made a 5-yr lifetime limit per indi. for cash assisstence.
- College edu. no longer counts as work activity.
What significant social welfare policy shift does the creation of TANF represent?
The previous programs were federal and the change to TANF gave the power back to states. The fed's were trying to reduce their hand in social welfare issues.
What are the social trends of the 2000's?
- Economic fluctuation, ending budget deficit/recession.
- Baby boomer generation will be retiring.
- Afgan war 2001
- Iraq war 2003-2011
- Hurricane Katrina 2005
- Major recession 2008-2010
- Obama became president 2009
What were the social welfare trends of the 2000's?
- reduced fed. involvement in social welfare issues continue till 2008. Recession brought increased involvement.
- Reduced spending on public assistance continues.
- 9/11, Hurricane kat, and Sandy seemed to reinforce people's belief in the role of the fed. govt. to provide social welfare assistance in the case of public emergencies, if not private ones.
What year was the Part D program started and what was it?
- Medicare Prescription Drug Bill (Part D).
- Goal was to help older adults pay for the high cost of prescriptions.
- Reflects increasing need as a nation to focus on social welfare issues related to aging health care.
What year was the Patient Protection and Affordable Care act enacted and what is it?
- A comprehensive health care insurance bill.
- Big moment when it was deided that the fed's should be involved in social welfare since 30 yrs.
How is the political eco. of the U.S. typically described and, very briefly, what does that mean?
A mixed welfare economy. That means an economy in which the voluntary, governmental, and corporate sectors are all providers of social welfare services.
In what era was Keynesian Economics initially proposed?
In general terms, how did he describe the appropriate role of the fed govt. and the eco?
What was his opinion on social welfare policies and expenditures?
What is the relationship b/t Keynesian Economics and the "welfare state"?
- Keynesian spoke his ideas after the "New Deal" 1929.
- The market needs govt. intervention to remain stable and to meet basic human needs.
- Social welfare spending is seen as an investment in human capital that eventually increases productivity and national wealth.
- He believes that social welfare spending should be a last resort when other policy fails.
What year Conservative or "Free market" Economy Theory emerge as a strong influence on social welfare policies?
In general terms, what did Milton F. propose the appropriate rela. b/t the fed. govt. and the eco to be?
- Milton Friedman was on Reagan's cabinet.
- Believed that the fed. govt. should have little involvement in the economy because it is generally a self-regulating market.
According to Friedman, what would be a justifiable reason for the govt. to spend $ on social welfare programs?
According to conservative economists, what are two ways in which large social welfare programs are determined to society?
- He does not agree that there is a justifiable reason to spend money on social welfare programs. He believes them to detrimental to society for two reasons;
- 1)erodes people's work ethic.
- 2)requires taxes and so takes money from the private sector.
During what eras did liberal political thought maintain a strong influence on social welfare policy?
How do liberal political theorists view the rela. b/t govt. social welfare programs and the public good?
- 1930's through till 1960's this political thought held a strong influence on social welfare policy.
- The public good is best served by promoting an expanding eco. and the growth of universal, non-means-tested social welfare and health programs.
- Govt. is seen as the only institution capable of bringing a measure of social justice to the whole population, b/c of obstacles such as poverty, racism, and sexism.
What were 3 shifts in political thought from liberalism to neoliberalism?
During what era did this emerge as a strong influence on social welfare policy?
- Based in traditional liberal beliefs, but w/3 key shifts:
- 1) more cautious of govt.
- 2)less antagonistic toward big business.
- 3) more skeptical about the value of universal entitlements.
- Late 80's into the 90's. Bill Clinton and Al Gore were the leaders of a neoliberal group that was started in the late 1980's.
Traditional Conservative Political theory:
How do classic conservatives prefer that social welfare services be provided?
Govt. should be focusing on protecting the people through defense, police, and foreign affairs, not on social welfare.
Non-conservative Political Theory:
During what era did neo-conservative political thought emerge?
What did theorists want to see happen with social welfare?
Be familiar with neo-conservative critiques of govt. welfare programs in the 70's.
- Began in the 70's and can still be seen today.
- Based in traditional conservative beliefs, but recognizes the need for social welfare.
- Concerned that social welfare programs are poorly ran by the govt. and encourage dependency on the state. they should be designed with an emphasis on 'traditional' values and the market eco.
- 1)emphasize workforce paricipation.
- 2)transfer as much res. for social welfare to the private sector as possible.
Cultural Conservative Political Theory:
What era did this theory emerge as a strong influence on social welfare policy?
What major social welfare policy enacted in 1996 is seen as a primary achievement of the cultural conservative political movement?
Not sure. Look it up.
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