What were the social welfare trends of the 2000's?
reduced fed. involvement in social welfare issues continue till 2008. Recession brought increased involvement.
Reduced spending on public assistance continues.
9/11, Hurricane kat, and Sandy seemed to reinforce people's belief in the role of the fed. govt. to provide social welfare assistance in the case of public emergencies, if not private ones.
What year was the Part D program started and what was it?
Medicare Prescription Drug Bill (Part D).
Goal was to help older adults pay for the high cost of prescriptions.
Reflects increasing need as a nation to focus on social welfare issues related to aging health care.
What year was the Patient Protection and Affordable Care act enacted and what is it?
A comprehensive health care insurance bill.
Big moment when it was deided that the fed's should be involved in social welfare since 30 yrs.
How is the political eco. of the U.S. typically described and, very briefly, what does that mean?
A mixed welfare economy. That means an economy in which the voluntary, governmental, and corporate sectors are all providers of social welfare services.
In what era was Keynesian Economics initially proposed?
In general terms, how did he describe the appropriate role of the fed govt. and the eco?
What was his opinion on social welfare policies and expenditures?
What is the relationship b/t Keynesian Economics and the "welfare state"?
Keynesian spoke his ideas after the "New Deal" 1929.
The market needs govt. intervention to remain stable and to meet basic human needs.
Social welfare spending is seen as an investment in human capital that eventually increases productivity and national wealth.
He believes that social welfare spending should be a last resort when other policy fails.
What year Conservative or "Free market" Economy Theory emerge as a strong influence on social welfare policies?
In general terms, what did Milton F. propose the appropriate rela. b/t the fed. govt. and the eco to be?
Milton Friedman was on Reagan's cabinet.
Believed that the fed. govt. should have little involvement in the economy because it is generally a self-regulating market.
According to Friedman, what would be a justifiable reason for the govt. to spend $ on social welfare programs?
According to conservative economists, what are two ways in which large social welfare programs are determined to society?
He does not agree that there is a justifiable reason to spend money on social welfare programs. He believes them to detrimental to society for two reasons;
1)erodes people's work ethic.
2)requires taxes and so takes money from the private sector.
During what eras did liberal political thought maintain a strong influence on social welfare policy?
How do liberal political theorists view the rela. b/t govt. social welfare programs and the public good?
1930's through till 1960's this political thought held a strong influence on social welfare policy.
The public good is best served by promoting an expanding eco. and the growth of universal, non-means-tested social welfare and health programs.
Govt. is seen as the only institution capable of bringing a measure of social justice to the whole population, b/c of obstacles such as poverty, racism, and sexism.
What were 3 shifts in political thought from liberalism to neoliberalism?
During what era did this emerge as a strong influence on social welfare policy?
Based in traditional liberal beliefs, but w/3 key shifts:
1) more cautious of govt.
2)less antagonistic toward big business.
3) more skeptical about the value of universal entitlements.
Late 80's into the 90's. Bill Clinton and Al Gore were the leaders of a neoliberal group that was started in the late 1980's.
Traditional Conservative Political theory:
How do classic conservatives prefer that social welfare services be provided?
Govt. should be focusing on protecting the people through defense, police, and foreign affairs, not on social welfare.
Non-conservative Political Theory:
During what era did neo-conservative political thought emerge?
What did theorists want to see happen with social welfare?
Be familiar with neo-conservative critiques of govt. welfare programs in the 70's.
Began in the 70's and can still be seen today.
Based in traditional conservative beliefs, but recognizes the need for social welfare.
Concerned that social welfare programs are poorly ran by the govt. and encourage dependency on the state. they should be designed with an emphasis on 'traditional' values and the market eco.
1)emphasize workforce paricipation.
2)transfer as much res. for social welfare to the private sector as possible.
Cultural Conservative Political Theory:
What era did this theory emerge as a strong influence on social welfare policy?
What major social welfare policy enacted in 1996 is seen as a primary achievement of the cultural conservative political movement?