Anatomy_Body_Tissues.txt

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Author:
spaulding001
ID:
236734
Filename:
Anatomy_Body_Tissues.txt
Updated:
2013-09-24 16:34:48
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skin body tissues
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Description:
Different types of tissues
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  1. Forms mucous, serous, and epidermal membranes
    Epithelium
  2. Allows for organ movements within the body
    muscle
  3. Transmits electro-chemical impulses
    Nervous
  4. Supports body organs
    Connective
  5. Cells of this tissue may absorb and/or secrete substances
    Epithelium
  6. Basis of the major controlling system of the body
    Nervous
  7. The cells of this tissue shorten to exert force
    Muscle
  8. What tissue forms various glands and secretes hormones
    Epithelium
  9. Packages and protects body organs
    Connective
  10. Characterized by having large amounts of nonliving matrix
    Connective
  11. Allows you to smile, grasp, swim, ski, and shoot an arrow
    Muscle
  12. Most widely distributed tissue type in the body
    Connective
  13. Forms the brain and spinal cord
    Nervous
  14. Tissues
    Group of cells that are similar in structure and function
  15. Four primary tissue types
    Epithelium (covering), Connective tissue (support), Nervous tissue (control), and muscle (movement)
  16. Function and body location of Nervous Tissue
    • Function: Internal communication
    • Location: Brain, spinal cord, and nerves
  17. Function and location of Muscle tissue
    • Function: Contracts to cause movement
    • Location: Muscles attached to bones (skeletal)
    • Muscle of heart (cardiac)
    • Muscles of walls of hollow organs (smooth)
  18. Function and location of Epithelial tissue
    • Function: Forms boundaries between different environments, protects, secretes, absorbs, filters
    • Location: Lining of GI tract organs and other hollow organs
    • Skin Surface (epidermis)
  19. Function and location of Connective tissue
    • Function: Supports, protects, binds other tissues together
    • Location: Bones
    • Tendons
    • Fat and other soft padding tissue
  20. Epithelium Characteristics
    • Cells fit closely together and often form sheets 
    • The apical surface is the free surface of the tissue 
    • The lower surface of the epithelium rests on abasement membrane
    • Avascular (no blood supply)
    • Regenerate easily if well nourished
  21. label the epithelium Layers
  22. Describe epithelium classification
    • Each epithelium is given two names; the first indicates the relative number of cell layers
    • Layers of cells
    • Simple epithelium - one layer of cells
    • Stratified epithelium - more than one layer of cells
    • The second describes the shape of the cell;
    • Shape of cells
    • Squamous - flattened (fish-like scales)
    • Cuboidal - cube-shaped (dice-shaped)
    • Columnar - column-like (column-shaped)
  23. Simple squamous epithelium
    • Single layer of flat cells 
    • Location - usually forms membranes 
    • Lines body cavities
    •  Lines lungs and capillaries
    •  Functions in diffusion, filtration, or secretion in membranes
  24. Simple cuboidal
    • Single layer of cube-like cells
    • Locations
    •  Common in glands and their ducts
    •  Forms walls of kidney tubules
    •  Covers the ovaries
    • Functions in secretion and absorption; ciliated types propel mucus or reproductive cells
  25. Simple columnar
    • Single layer of tall cells
    •  Often includes mucus-producing goblet cells  Location - lines digestive tract
    •  Functions in secretion and absorption; ciliated types propel mucus or reproductive cells
  26. Pseudostratified columnar
    • Single layer, but some cells are shorter than others
    •  Often looks like a double layer of cells but all cells rest on the basement membrane
    •  Location - respiratory tract, where it is ciliated
    •  Functions in absorption or secretion
  27. Stratified squamous
    • Cells at the apical surface are flattened
    •  Functions as a protective covering where friction is common
    •  Locations - lining of the:
    •  Skin
    •  Mouth
    •  Esophagus
  28. Stratified cuboidal
    Two layers of cuboidal cells; functions in protection
  29. Stratified columnar
    Surface cells are columnar, cells underneath vary in size and shape; functions in protection
  30. Stratified cuboidal and columnar
    • Rare in human body
    •  Found mainly in ducts of large glands
  31. Transitional epithelium
    • Composed of modified stratified squamous epithelium
    •  Shape of cells depends upon the amount of stretching
    •  Functions in stretching and the ability to return to normal shape
    •  Location - lines organs of the urinary system
  32. Two major gland types
    • Endocrine gland
    •  Ductless since secretions diffuse into blood vessels
    •  All secretions are hormones
    • Exocrine gland
    •  Secretions empty through ducts to the epithelial surface
    •  Include sweat and oil glands
  33. What are the two main elements of the Extracellular Matrix
    • Structureless ground substance 
    • composed of water plus some adhesion proteins and large, charged polysaccharide molecules
    • Fibers
    • Collagen (white fibers)
    • Elastic (yellow)
    • Reticular fibers (fine collagen fibers that form the internal "skeleton" of soft organs)
  34. What is bone tissue made of
    • Composed of
    •  Bone cells in lacunae (cavities)
    •  Hard matrix of calcium salts
    •  Large numbers of collagen fibers
  35. Hyaline cartilage
    • Most common type of cartilage
    • Composed of
    •  Abundant collagen fibers
    •  Rubbery matrix
    • Locations
    •  Larynx
    •  Entire fetal skeleton prior to birth 
    •  Functions as a more flexible skeletal element than bone
  36. Elastic cartilage
    • Provides elasticity
    • Location
    •  Supports the external ear
  37. Fibrocartilage
    • Highly compressible
    • Location
    •  Forms cushion-like discs between vertebrae
  38. Dense connective tissue (dense fibrous tissue)
    • Main matrix element is collagen fiber
    •  Fibroblasts are cells that make fibers Locations
    •  Tendons—attach skeletal muscle to bone
    •  Ligaments—attach bone to bone at joints
    •  Dermis—lower layers of the skin
  39. Loose connective tissue types - Areolar tissue
    •  Most widely distributed connective tissue
    •  Soft, pliable tissue like “cobwebs”
    •  Functions as a packing tissue
    •  Contains all fiber types
    •  Can soak up excess fluid (causes edema)
  40. Loose connective tissue types - Adipose tissue
    •  Matrix is an areolar tissue in which fat globules predominate
    •  Many cells contain large lipid deposits
    •  Functions
    •  Insulates the body
    •  Protects some organs
    •  Serves as a site of fuel storage
  41. Loose connective tissue types - Reticular connective tissue
    • Delicate network of interwoven fibers
    • Locations
    •  Forms stroma (internal supporting network) of lymphoid organs
    •  Lymph nodes
    •  Spleen
    •  Bone marrow
  42. Blood (vascular tissue)
    • Blood cells surrounded by fluid matrix called blood plasma
    •  Fibers are visible during clotting
    •  Functions as the transport vehicle for materials
  43. Name three types of muscle tissue
    • Skeletal muscle
    • Cardiac muscle
    • Smooth muscle
  44. Skeletal muscle
    • Under voluntary control
    •  Contracts to pull on bones or skin
    •  Produces gross body movements or facial expressions
    • Characteristics of skeletal muscle cells
    •  Striated
    •  Multinucleate (more than one nucleus)
    •  Long, cylindrical cells
  45. Cardiac muscle
    • Under involuntary control
    •  Found only in the heart
    •  Function is to pump blood
    • Characteristics of cardiac muscle cells
    •  Striated
    •  One nucleus per cell
    •  Cells are attached to other cardiac muscle cells at intercalated disk
  46. Smooth muscle
    • Under involuntary muscle
    •  Found in walls of hollow organs such as stomach,uterus, and blood vessels
    • Characteristics of smooth muscle cells
    •  No visible striations
    •  One nucleus per cell
    •  Spindle-shaped cells
  47. Neurons and nerve support cells
    • Send impulses to other areas of the body
    •  Irritability
    •  Conductivity

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