Bio exam 2

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Bio exam 2
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2013-09-25 00:36:30
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Biology Exam
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Studying for bio exam
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  1. Macro molecules
    The largest molecules of the four classes of organic compounds,Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Nucleic Acid. They are huge on the molecular scale and made up of chains of polymers. Carb:CHO, Amino Acid/Protein: CHON, Nucleic Acid: CHONP
  2. Polymers
    A long molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds.
  3. Monomers
    The building blocks of polymers connected by a reaction in which two molecules are covalently bonded to one another, with the loss of a water molecule.
  4. Condensation Synthesis
    A molecule of water is removed to join the two molecules to make up a polymer.
  5. Hydrolysis
    To disassemble a polymer the water is added and the molecules separate. The hydrogen from the water attaches to one monomer and the hydroxyl group attaches to the adjacent monomer.
  6. Cabohydrates
    The sugars used to store energy, including polymers of sugars.
  7. Monosaccharides
    Simple sugars, the monomers from which more complex carbs are constructed. Molecular formula: C1H2O1 or some multiple of that eg. C6H2O6.
  8. Disaccharides
    Double sugars, consisting of two monosaccharides covalently bonded together. This bond is called Glycosidic linkage.
  9. Glycosidic Linkage
    The covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by condensation synthesis.
  10. Trioses
    3-carbon sugars (C3H6O3)
  11. Pentoses
    5-carbon sugars (C5H10O5)
  12. Hexoses
    6-carbon sugars (C6H12O6)
  13. The Trademarks of Sugar
    The molecule has a carbonyl group (C=O) and multiple hydroxyl groups (--OH). Depending on the location of the carbonyl group the sugar is either an Aldose (aldehyde sugar) or a Ketose (ketone sugar).
  14. Sugar structure
    In aqueous solutions, glocose molecules, as well as most five or six carbon sugars form rings.
  15. Storage Polysaccharides in plants
    Plants store polysaccharides as starch, a polymer of glucose monomers as granules within cellular structures known as plastids, which include chloroplasts.
  16. Amylose
    The simplest form of starch, has a branched form.

  17. Amylopectin
    • A more complex starch, is a branched polymer with 1-6 linkages at the branch points.¬†
  18. Storage Polysaccharides in Animals
    • Animals are usually mobile which means they must store energy in a movable structure. This is called Glycogen, a polymer of glucose that is like amylopectin but more extensively branched. Stored in liver and muscle cells.
  19. Structural Polysaccharides: Cellulose
    A major component of the tough walls that enclose plant cells.
  20. Lipids
    Fats, non-polar molecules, not water soluble, hydrophobic, important for energy storage.
  21. Fatty acids
    Fat is constructed from two kinds of smaller molecules by condensation synthesis: glycerol and fatty acids, they have a long carbon skeleton, 16-18 carbons. one end is the carboxyl group, relatively non-polar C--H bonds, the reason fats are hydrophobic.
  22. Phospholipids
    • The lipid made up of two fatty acids and glycerol that is joined to a phosphate group which has a negative charge. The two hydrocarbon tails are hydrophobic, the head is hydrophillic. When added to water they self-assemble into a bilayer protecting the tails inside the heads. Forming the cell membrane.
  23. Steroids
    Lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings. eg. cholesteral, sex hormmones.
  24. Cholesterol
    A crucial molecule in animals. common component of animal cell membrane, synthesized in the liver and obtained from diet, high cholesterol = athersclerosis, both saturated fats and trans fats have a negative impact on health by affecting cholesterol levels.
  25. Proteins
    Account for 50% of the dry mass of  most cells, and they help organisms do everything they do, they speed up reactions (catalysts), defend, transport, play a role in storage, cellular communication (signaling), contractile (movement), and structural support.
  26. Polypeptides
    Polymers of amino acids. One or more make up the molecule of a protein, each polypeptide is folded into a specific 3D shape, each shape means a different function of the protein.
  27. Amino Acids
    The building blocks of protein, molecule with an amino group and a carbonyl group, the side chain R group is what gives each of the 20 amino acids their identity. 9 of the amino acids are not synthesized by our bodies and must be eaten.
  28. Peptide Bond
    The covalent bond formed through condensation synthesis (dehydration reaction) with the removal of water, joins together two amino acids so that the carbonyl group of one is adjacent to the amino group of the other. This creates a polypeptide, then a protein.
  29. Primary Protein Structure
    Unique sequence of amino acids determined by genetic material.
  30. Secondary Structure
    Coiled and folded due to hydrogen bonding between the repeating constituents of the polypeptide backbone, not the amino acid chains.
  31. Tertiary Structure
    3D shape due to bonding of R groups.
  32. Quaternary Structure
    Association of 2 or more polypeptides, overall structure of the protein.
  33. Denaturation
    The structure of a protein depends on the physical and chemical conditions of the environment. PH, salt concentration, temperature, conditions can cause weak bonds and interactions with protein to unravel and loose its shape.
  34. Chaperonins
    Protein molecules that assist in the proper folding of other proteins. They keep the new polypeptide separated from bad influences in the cytoplasm while it folds.
  35. Nucleic Acids
    The class of organic compounds that are made up of polymers called nucleotides. Two types: DNA- inherited from parents, allows reproduction, directs RNA synthesis, RNA- allow reproduction of complex components, protein synthesis.
  36. Composition of NA
    • Nitrogenous Base: ATGC
    • Pentose
    • Phosphate group
    • In DNA, A pairs with T; G pairs with C
  37. Polynucleotides
    polymers consisting of the monomers Nucleotides, which is composed of a nitrogenous base, pentose, and phosphate group.
  38. Pyrimidine
    Has one six-membered ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms, cytosine, thymine, and uracil.
  39. purines
    are larger with six-membered ring fused to a five membered, adenine, and guanine.
  40. Eukaryotic organelles
    • Form four functional groups:
    • manufacture
    • breakdown
    • energy processing
    • support, movement, communication
  41. DETOXIFICATION
    neutralizes chemically

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