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CNS (Central Nervous System):
The body's primary nervous system that consists of the brain & spinal cord.
PNS (Parasympathetic Nervous System)
- Located outside of the brain & spinal cord, it is made up of 2 divisions: Autonomic & Somatic.
- After interpretation by the CNS, the PNS receives stimuli & initiates responses to those stimuli.
ANS/Autonomic Nervous System (Visceral System)
- Innervates (acts on) smooth muscles & glands.
- *control & regulate heart
- *Respiratory system
- *GI tract
Explain the ANS:
An involuntary nervous system over which a person has little to no control.
Explain the Somatic Nervous System:
Unlike the ANS, the SNS is a voluntary system that innervates skeletal muscles over which there is control.
There are 2 sets of neurons in the autonomic component of the PNS, what are they?
- Afferent neurons (sensory)
- Efferent neurons (motor)
What do the afferent neurons do?
They send impulses to the CNS, where they are interpreted.
What do the Efferent neurons do?
Receive the impulses (information) from the brain & transmit those impulses thru the spinal cord to the effector organ cells.
The Efferent pathways are divided into 2 branches, what are they?
Sympathetic & Parasympathetic nerves
The sympathetic & parasympathetic nervous systems act on the same organs but produce opposite responses to provide what?
The Sympathetic Nervous System is also called what?
What neurotransmitter is used by the SNS to innervate smooth muscle?
There are 4 types of organ cell receptors in the Adrenergic system, what are they?
Norepinephrine is released from the terminal nerve ending & does what?
stimulates the cell receptors to produce a response.
The Parasympathetic Nervous System is also called what? & Why is it called that?
- *The neurotransmitter at the end of the neuron that innervates the muscle is acetylcholine
Cholinergic receptors at organ cells are either ______ or ______
Nicotinic or Muscarinic
Nicotinic & Muscarinic are stimulated by what alkaloids?
Nicotine & Muscarine
In the PNS what stimulates the receptor cells to produce a response?
What enzyme can inactivate Acetylcholine?
What is the break down of the PNS?
- Parasympathetic Nervous System
- ^ ^
- Autonomic Nervous System Somatic
- ^ ^ Nervous System
- ^ ^
- SNS PNS
The SNS response for the:
- Eyes: Dilates pupils
- Lungs: Dilates Bronchioles
- Heart: ^HR
- Blood Vessels: Constricts
- GI: Relaxes smooth muscles of GI tract
- Bladder: Relaxes bladder muscle
- Uterus: Relaxes
- Salivary Gland: nothing
The PNS responses for:
- Eyes: Constricts pupils
- Lungs: Constricts Bronchioles & ^ secretions
- Heart: <HR
- Blood Vessels: Dilates
- GI: Increases paristalsis
- Bladder: Constricts bladder
- Uterus: nothing
- Salivary gland: ^ salivation
What do Adrenergic Blockers do?
Block the effects of the adrenergic neurotransmitter.
Adrenergic Blockers are also called what?
- Adrenergic Antagonists
What is Adrenaline?
Also known as Epinephrine, is a hormone & neurotransmitter. It is produced in some neurons of the CNS & acts on the Alpha1, beta1 &beta2 Adrenergic receptor sites.
When adrenaline (epinephrine) affects the alpha 1, beta 1 & beta 2 receptor sites how does the body react?
^BP, pupil dilation, ^HR & bronchodilation
What are catecholamines?
the chemical structures of a substance (endogenous or synthetic) that can produce a sympathomimetic response.
What are some examples of endogenous catecholamines?
epinephrine, norepinephrine, & dopaminergic
What are some examples of synthetic catecholamines?
isoproterenol & dobutamine
What is Norepinephrine?
a catecholamine, (neurotransmitter) that is released from the terminal nerve ending & stimulates the cell receptors to produce a response.
What is another name for the cholinergic system?
Parasympathetic Nervous System (PNS)
What is acetylcholine?
A neurotransmitter at the end of the neuron that innervates (activates) the muscles
What do the Alpha Blockers do?
Drugs that block or inhibit a response at the alpha adrenergic receptor site.
Beta blockers are also called what? & do what?
- Beta Adrenergic Blockers.
- <HR & a <in BP usually follows.
Some of the Beta Blockers are nonselective, blocking both Beta1 & Beta2 receptors. When Beta1 is blocked what occurs?
<in HR & bronchoconstriction
By blocking Beta 1 receptors, Atenolol does what to the body?
- <peripheral vascular resistance
- <force of cardiac contractions
- <cardiac output
- <systolic & diastolic BP
What is a catecholamine?
A chemical compound that acts as a neurotransmitter or hormone
Another name for Adrenergic Blockers is what?
Sympatholytics or adrenolytics
What do Sympatholytics/Adrenolytics/Adrenergic Blockers do?
They are drugs that block the effects of the adrenergic neurotransmitter. They act as antagonists to adrenergic agonists by blocking the alpha & beta receptor sites.
Another name for Adrenergic Agonists?
Adrenomimetics are drugs that what?
Stimulate the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). They mimic the sympathetic neurotransmitters norepinephrine & epinephrine & act on one or more of the adrenergic receptor sites located in cells of muscles (ie. heart)
Name a few of the smooth muscles where adrenergic receptor sites can be found.
Heart muscle, bronchiole walls, GI tract, urinary bladder, & ciliary muscle of the eye.
Other names for Cholinergic Blocking Agents?
How do Anticholinergics (Parasympatholytics/Cholinergic blocking agents) work?
Drugs that inhibit the actions of acetylcholine by occupying the acetylcholine receptors
What major tissues & organs are affected by the anticholinergic group of drugs?
- Respiratory tract
- GI tract
- Urinary bladder
- Exocrine glands
How do parasympatholytics (anticholinergics) work?
They inhibit the actions of acetylcholine by occupying the acetylcholine receptors.
How do parasympathomimetics (Cholinergic Agonsits) work?
They stimulate the parasympathetic nervous system.
What is a neurotransmitter?
Endogenous chemicals that transmit signals from a neuron to a target cell across a synapse
What do Amphetamines do?
The stimulate the release of neurotransmitters (norepinephrine & dopamine) from the brain & SNS.
What is ADHD?
- (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder)
- possibly caused by a dysregulation of the transmitters serotonin, norepinephrine & dopamine
What is Narcolepsy?
Characterized by falling asleep during normal waking activities such as driving a car or talking w/someone. It is accompanied by sleep paralysis, a condition where muscles are paralyzed like during normal sleep & affects the voluntary muscles.
What are Barbiturates?
- Sedatives that can be either long-acting, intermediate-acting, short-acting or ultrashort-acting.
- (class II)
What are Benzodiazapines?
Minor tranquilizers & Anxiolytics. Typically ordered as a sedative hypnotic for inducing sleep.
What are the 2 types of Anesthetics?
General & Local
What do General Anesthetics do?
Depress the CNS, alleviate pain, & cause loss of consciousness.