Chp 3

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araceliloveee
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236756
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Chp 3
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2013-09-24 12:09:17
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Chapter 3 vocabulary
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  1. CARBONYL GROUP
    in an organic molecule, a functional group consisting of a carbon atom linked by a double bond to an oxygen atom.
  2. HYDROLYSIS
    a chemical process in which polymers are broken down by the chemical addition of water molecules to the bonds linking their monomers; an essential part of digestion.
  3. CARBOXYLIC ACID
    an organic compound containing a carboxyl group
  4. PEPTIDE BOND
    the covalent linkage between two amino acid units in a polypeptide; formed by a dehydration reaction.
  5. DEHYDRATION REACTION
    • a chemical process in which two molecules become covalently bonded to each other with the removal of a water molecule.
    • also called condensation
  6. PHOSPHOLIPID
    a lipid made up of glycerol joined to two fatty acids and a phosphate group, giving the molecule a nonpolar hydrophobic tail and a polar hydrophilic head.
  7. CARBOXYL GROUP
    in an organic molecule, a functional group consisting of an oxygen atom double-bonded to a carbon atom that is also bonded to a hydroxyl goup
  8. FAT
    • a large lipid molecule made from an alcohol called glycerol and three fatty acids; a triglyceride.
    • Most fats function as energy storage molecules
  9. HYDROCARBON
    a chemical compound composed only of the elements carbon and hydrogen.
  10. ORGANIC COMPOUND
    a chemical compound containing the element carbon and usually synthesized by cells
  11. CELLULOSE
    a large polysaccharide composed of many glucose monomers linked into cable like fibrils that provide structural support in plant cell walls
  12. POLYMER
    a large molecule consisting of many identical or similar molecular units, called monomers, covalently joined together in a chain
  13. STARCH
    a storage polysaccharide found in the rots of plants and certain other cells; a polymer of glucose
  14. DISACCHARIDE
    a sugar molecule consisting of two monosaccharides linked by dehydration reaction
  15. GLYCOGEN
    • an extensively branched polysaccharide of many glucose monomers
    • serves as an energy storage molecule in liver and muscle cells
  16. POPULATION
    a group of individuals belonging to one species and living in the same geographic area.
  17. METHYL GROUP
    in an organic molecule a carbon bonded to three hydrogens
  18. MACROMOLECULE
    • a giant molecule in a living organism formed by the joining of smaller molecules
    • a protein, carbohydrate, or a nucleic acid
  19. AMINO ACID
    • an organic molecule containing a carboxyl group and an amino group
    • serves as the monomer of proteins
  20. DENATURATION
    • a process in which a protein unravels, losing its specific structure and function
    • can be caused by changes in pH or salt concentration or by high temperature
  21. NUCLEOTIDE
    • an organic monomer consisting of a five carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group.
    • they are the building blocks of nucleic acids.
  22. ISOMER
    organic compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures and different properties
  23. STEROID
    • a type of lipid whose carbon skeleton is in the form of four fused rings with various chemical groups attached
    • ex. cholesterol, testosterone, and estrogen
  24. QUATERNARY STRUCTURE
    • the fourth level of protein structure;
    • the shape resulting from the association of two or more polypeptide subunits
  25. PHOSPHATE GROUP
    a functional group consisting of a phosphorus atom covalently bonded to four oxygen atoms
  26. SATURATED
    pertaining to fats and fatty acids whose hydrocarbon chains contain the maximum number of hydrogens and have no double covalent bonds.
  27. AMINE
    an organic compound with one or more amino groups
  28. GENE
    a discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA in some viruses)
  29. LIPID
    an organic compound consisting mainly of carbon and hydrogen atoms linked by nonpolar covalent bonds, making the compound mostly hydrophobic.
  30. CARBOHYDRATE
    member of the class of biological molecules consisting of simple single monomer sugars (monosaccharides), two-monomer sugars (disaccharides) and other multiunit sugars (polysaccharides)
  31. PLEATED SHEET
    the folded arrangement of a plypeptide in a protein's secondary structure
  32. HYDROPHILIC
  33. water-loving
  34. PRIMARY STRUCTURE
    • the first level of protein structure;
    • the specific sequence of amino acids making up a polypeptide chain
  35. CHOLESTEROL
    a steroid that is an important component of animal cell membranes and that acts as a precursor molecule for the synthesis of other steroids such as hormones
  36. CARBON SKELETON
    the chain of carbon atoms that forms the structural backbone of an organic molecule
  37. DOUBLE HELIX
    the form of native DNA, referring to its two adjacent polynucleotide strands wound into a spiral shape
  38. POLYPEPTIDE
    a polymer (chain) of amino acids linked by peptide bonds
  39. TERTIARY STRUCTURE
    • the third level of protein structure;
    • the overall three dimensional shape of a polypeptide due to interactions of the R groups of the amino acids making up the chain
  40. RNA (ribonucleic acid)
    • a type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar
    • A,C,G,U
    • single stranded
  41. PROTEIN
    a functional biological molecule consisting of one or ore polypeptides folded into a specific three dimensional structure
  42. HYDROXYL GROUP
    in an organic molecule, a functional group consisting of a hydrogen atom bonded to an oxygen atom
  43. ENZYME
    a protein (or RNA molecule) that serves as a biological catalyst changing the rate of a chemical reaction without itself being changed into a different molecule in the process
  44. MONOSACCHARIDE
    • the simplest carbohydrate;
    • a simple sugar with molecular formula that is generally some multiple of CO2O
    • they are building blocks of disaccharides & polysaccharides
  45. MONOMER
    a chemical subunit that serves as a building block of a polymer
  46. FUNCTIONAL GROUP
    an assemblage of atoms commonly attached to the carbon skeletons of organic molecules and usually involved in chemical reactions
  47. POLYSACCHARIDE
    a carbohydrate polymer consisting of hundreds to thousands of monosaccharides linked by dehydration synthesis
  48. CHITIN
    a structural polysaccharide found in many fungal cell walls and in exoskeletons of anthropods
  49. AMINO GROUP
    in an organic molecule a functional group consisting of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms
  50. HYDROPHOBIC
    • water fearing
    • pertaining to nonpolar molecules
  51. SECONDARY STRUCTURE
    • the second level of protein structure;
    • the regular local patterns of coils or folds of a polypeptidechain
  52. ANABOLIC  STEROID
    a synthetic variant of the male hormone testosterone that mimics some of its effects
  53. DNA
    • a double stranded helical nucleic acid molecule
    • ACGT
    • capable of replicating in an organisms genetic material
  54. ALPHA HELIX
    the spiral shape resulting from the coiling of a polypeptide in a protein's secondary structure
  55. UNSATURATED
    pertaining to fats and fatty acids whose hydrocarbon chains lack the maximum number of hydrogen atoms and have one or more double covalent bonds
  56. NUCLEIC ACID
    • a polymer consisting of many nucleotide monomers
    • two types of nucleic acids are DNA and RNA

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