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in an organic molecule, a functional group consisting of a carbon atom linked by a double bond to an oxygen atom.
a chemical process in which polymers are broken down by the chemical addition of water molecules to the bonds linking their monomers; an essential part of digestion.
an organic compound containing a carboxyl group
the covalent linkage between two amino acid units in a polypeptide; formed by a dehydration reaction.
- a chemical process in which two molecules become covalently bonded to each other with the removal of a water molecule.
- also called condensation
a lipid made up of glycerol joined to two fatty acids and a phosphate group, giving the molecule a nonpolar hydrophobic tail and a polar hydrophilic head.
in an organic molecule, a functional group consisting of an oxygen atom double-bonded to a carbon atom that is also bonded to a hydroxyl goup
- a large lipid molecule made from an alcohol called glycerol and three fatty acids; a triglyceride.
- Most fats function as energy storage molecules
a chemical compound composed only of the elements carbon and hydrogen.
a chemical compound containing the element carbon and usually synthesized by cells
a large polysaccharide composed of many glucose monomers linked into cable like fibrils that provide structural support in plant cell walls
a large molecule consisting of many identical or similar molecular units, called monomers, covalently joined together in a chain
a storage polysaccharide found in the rots of plants and certain other cells; a polymer of glucose
a sugar molecule consisting of two monosaccharides linked by dehydration reaction
- an extensively branched polysaccharide of many glucose monomers
- serves as an energy storage molecule in liver and muscle cells
a group of individuals belonging to one species and living in the same geographic area.
in an organic molecule a carbon bonded to three hydrogens
- a giant molecule in a living organism formed by the joining of smaller molecules
- a protein, carbohydrate, or a nucleic acid
- an organic molecule containing a carboxyl group and an amino group
- serves as the monomer of proteins
- a process in which a protein unravels, losing its specific structure and function
- can be caused by changes in pH or salt concentration or by high temperature
- an organic monomer consisting of a five carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group.
- they are the building blocks of nucleic acids.
organic compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures and different properties
- a type of lipid whose carbon skeleton is in the form of four fused rings with various chemical groups attached
- ex. cholesterol, testosterone, and estrogen
- the fourth level of protein structure;
- the shape resulting from the association of two or more polypeptide subunits
a functional group consisting of a phosphorus atom covalently bonded to four oxygen atoms
pertaining to fats and fatty acids whose hydrocarbon chains contain the maximum number of hydrogens and have no double covalent bonds.
an organic compound with one or more amino groups
a discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA in some viruses)
an organic compound consisting mainly of carbon and hydrogen atoms linked by nonpolar covalent bonds, making the compound mostly hydrophobic.
member of the class of biological molecules consisting of simple single monomer sugars (monosaccharides), two-monomer sugars (disaccharides) and other multiunit sugars (polysaccharides)
the folded arrangement of a plypeptide in a protein's secondary structure
- the first level of protein structure;
- the specific sequence of amino acids making up a polypeptide chain
a steroid that is an important component of animal cell membranes and that acts as a precursor molecule for the synthesis of other steroids such as hormones
the chain of carbon atoms that forms the structural backbone of an organic molecule
the form of native DNA, referring to its two adjacent polynucleotide strands wound into a spiral shape
a polymer (chain) of amino acids linked by peptide bonds
- the third level of protein structure;
- the overall three dimensional shape of a polypeptide due to interactions of the R groups of the amino acids making up the chain
RNA (ribonucleic acid)
- a type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar
- single stranded
a functional biological molecule consisting of one or ore polypeptides folded into a specific three dimensional structure
in an organic molecule, a functional group consisting of a hydrogen atom bonded to an oxygen atom
a protein (or RNA molecule) that serves as a biological catalyst changing the rate of a chemical reaction without itself being changed into a different molecule in the process
- the simplest carbohydrate;
- a simple sugar with molecular formula that is generally some multiple of CO2O
- they are building blocks of disaccharides & polysaccharides
a chemical subunit that serves as a building block of a polymer
an assemblage of atoms commonly attached to the carbon skeletons of organic molecules and usually involved in chemical reactions
a carbohydrate polymer consisting of hundreds to thousands of monosaccharides linked by dehydration synthesis
a structural polysaccharide found in many fungal cell walls and in exoskeletons of anthropods
in an organic molecule a functional group consisting of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms
- water fearing
- pertaining to nonpolar molecules
- the second level of protein structure;
- the regular local patterns of coils or folds of a polypeptidechain
a synthetic variant of the male hormone testosterone that mimics some of its effects
- a double stranded helical nucleic acid molecule
- capable of replicating in an organisms genetic material
the spiral shape resulting from the coiling of a polypeptide in a protein's secondary structure
pertaining to fats and fatty acids whose hydrocarbon chains lack the maximum number of hydrogen atoms and have one or more double covalent bonds
- a polymer consisting of many nucleotide monomers
- two types of nucleic acids are DNA and RNA
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