NTR 501 Exam 1 Review

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NTR 501 Exam 1 Review
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2013-09-24 16:21:22
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Nutrition
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NTR 501
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  1. AMDR
    (acceptable macronutrient distribution): an intake range for an energy source associated with reduced risk of chronic disease

    DRI reference value
  2. appetite
    primarily psychological (external) influences that encourage us to find and eat food, often in the absence of obvious hunger

    desire or willingness to eat

    open system model
  3. CCK
    (cholecystokinin): hormone that stimulates enzyme release from the pancreas and bile release from the gall bladder

    satiation signalhormone in fed state

    tissue of origin= duodenum
  4. conditionally essential nutrient
    not synthesized in adequate amounts in specific populations
  5. digestion
    process by which large ingested molecules are mechanically and chemically broken down to produce smaller molecules that can be absorbed across the wall of the GI tract
  6. EAR
    (estimated average requirement): the average daily nutrient intake level estimated to meet the requirement of half the healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group

    better for assessment
  7. enterocytes
    the epithelial cells lining the small intestine responsible for absorption of most nutrients
  8. essential nutrient
    a substance that when left out of a diet leads to signs of poor health.  The body either can't produce this nutrient or can't produce enough of it to meet its needs.  Then, if added back to a diet before permanent damage occurs, the affected aspects of health are restored
  9. gall bladder
    organ attached to the underside of the liver and in which bile is stored and secreted
  10. gastric glands
    • located in stomach wall
    • secrete HCl, pepsin, mucins
    • substance produced during digestion = intrinsic factor
  11. gastrin
    • hormone that stimulates enzyme and acid secretion by the stomach
    • hormone in fed state
  12. ghrelin
    • hormone made by the stomach that increases food intake
    • hormone in fasted state
  13. homeostasis
    • series of adjustments that prevent change in the internal environment in the body
    • maintained through intake, absorption, excretion, and storage
  14. ileal brake
    nutrients in the ileum slow the emptying of chyme from the stomach as well as for reducing intestinal motility
  15. leptin
    • hormone (167 amino acids)made by adipose tissue (fat cells) that influences long-term regulation of fat mass
    • influences reproductive functions, as well as other body processes, such as insulin release
    • obesity peptide
    • adiposity signal
  16. pancreas
    • endocrine organ, located near the stomach, that secretes digestive enzymes into the small intestine and produces hormones- insulin, amylin, enterostatin, glucagon, and PP
    • secretes hormones that regulate food intake
    • produces trypsonogen
  17. portal vein
    large vein leaving from the intestine and stomach and connecting to the liver

    Route:most of the water-soluble nutrients (amino acids, monocsaccharides, glycerol, short chain fatty acids, electrolytes and water- soluble vitamins) first passes through the liver, where they can be utilized by hepatocytes or returned to the venous circulation
  18. RDA
    • (recommended dietary allowance): the average daily dietary nutrient intake level sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all (97%-98%) healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group
    • can be guide for planned intake of individuals
    • first published for American consumers in 1941 to prevent nutrient deficiencies
    • greater than the average requirement for all nutrients (iron, vitamin D, calcium) except energy
    • Used for:establishing nutrient standards for food assistance programs such as the National School Lunch and Breakfast Programs
    • evaluating dietary survey data
    • designing nutrition education programs
    • developing and fortifying food products
    • setting standards for food labels
  19. reference height and weight
    • Males 19-30 and over:
    • Median BMI= 22.5
    • reference height cm (in)= 177 (70)
    • reference weight kg (lb)= 70 (154)

    • Females 19-30 and over:
    • Median BMI= 21.5
    • reference height cm (in)= 163 (64)
    • reference weight kg (lb)= 57 (126)
  20. saliva
    watery fluid, produced by the salivary glands in the mouth, that contains lubricants, enzymes, and other substances
  21. satiety
    • (satiation): reduction of hunger and termination of eating; generally marks end of a meal
    • interplay of psychological, physiological and metabolic event
    • bigger factor in controlling intake
  22. UL
    (tolerable upper intake level): the highest average daily nutrient intake level likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to most all indivduals in the general population.  As one increases to levels above the UL the potential risk of adverse effects may increase
  23. villi
    finger-like protrusions into the small intestine that participate in digestion and adsorption of food components
  24. zymogen
    • inactive form of an enzyme as they leave the cell that requires the removal of a minor part of the chemical structure for it to work.  They zymogen is converted into an active enzyme at the appropriate time, such as when released into the stomach or small intestine.
    • molecules such as trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, proelastase

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