Pathogenic Microbiology - Chapters 1-7
Card Set Information
Pathogenic Microbiology - Chapters 1-7
Cards for Lecture Exam 1
A sexual process of reproduction in which one cell divides to form two daughter cells.
Time it takes for the number of cells in a population to double...the doubling time
Polymer-encased microbial community
Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS)
Are high-molecular weight compounds secreted by microorganisms into their environment.
Use of specific methods and sterile materials to exclude contaminating microbes from an environment.
A distinct mass of cells arising from a single cell.
Polysaccharide extracted from marine algae that is used to solidify microbiological media.
Two part dish of glass or plastic often used to contain medium solidified with agar on which bacteria are grown.
Exponential or log-phase growth
In bacterial growth curve, stage in which cells multiply exponentially; log phase
Primary and secondary metabolite production
Microorganism that grows best between -5 and 15 degrees C
Bacteria that grow most rapidly at temperatures between 20 and 45 degrees C.
Organism with an optimum growth temperature between 25-70 degrees C.
Organisms that require O2 for growth
Organisms that cannot multiply if O2 is present
Organism that grows best in the presence of oxygen, but can grown without it also.
Organisms that can live and multiply within the range of pH5 to pH8 (pH7)
Organisms that grow optimally at a pH below 5.5
Organisms that grow optimally at a pH above 8.5
Organisms that can grow in relatively high salt concentations.
Organism that prefers or requires a high salt medium to grow.
Medium for growing bacteria that has some ingredients of variable chemical composition.
Chemically defined Media
A culture medium composed of exact quantities of pure chemicals; generally used for scientific experiments when nutrients must be precisely controlled.
Culture medium that inhibits the growth of certain microorganisms and therefore favors the growth of desired microorganisms.
Cuture media that contain certain ingredients such as sugars in combination with pH indicators
Exacting; refers to organisms that require growth factors.
Agent that kills microorganisms and inactivates viruses.
The process of inhibiting the growth of microorganisms in products to delay spoilage.
Process of heating food or other substances under controlled conditions to kill pathogens and reduce the total number of microorganisms without damaging the substance.
Treatment to reduce the number of pathogens to a level considered to be safe.
To treat and item to reduce the microbial population to a level that meets accepted health standards.
A disinfectant that is non-toxic enough to be used on skin.
Process of reducing or eliminating pathogenic microorganisms or viruses in or on a material so that they are no longer a hazard.
A chemical used to destroy many microorganisms and viruses.
The process of destroying or removing all microorganisms and viruses through physical or chemical means.
Completely free of all microorganisms and viruses; an absolute form
A chemical used to destroy all microorganisms and viruses in a product, rendering it sterile.
Abbreviation for the decimal reduction time.
Medical instruments and surfaces such as stethoscopes and countertops that only come into contact with unbroken skin.
Medical instruments such as endoscopes that come into contact with mucous membranes, but do not penetrate the body tissues.
Medical instruments such as needles and scalpels that come into direct contact with body tissue.
Describes a cleaning method used in healthcare environments to control the spread of infections.
Father of modern antisepsis.
Cellular processes that harvest the energy released during the breakdown of compounds such as glucose, using it to synthesize ATP.
Cellular processes that synthesize and assemble the subunits of macromolecules, using the energy of ATP; biosynthesis
Sum total of all the enzymatic chemical reactions of a cell.
Stored energy; it can exist in a variety of forms including chemical bonds, a rock on the top of a hill, and water behind a dam
Energy of motion
A protein that functions as a catalyst, speeding up a biological reaction.
Series of sequential chemical reactions
Substance on which an enzyme acts to form products. Also can be a surface on which an organism will grow.
synthesis of ATP using the energy released in a energy-releasing chemical reaction during the breakdown of the energy source.
Site to an enzyme to which the substrate binds; also known as the catalytic site.
Transient form of an enzyme bound to its substrate as the enzyme converts the substrate into a product.
Non-protein component requires for the activity of some enzymes.
Synthesis of ATP using the energy of a proton motive force created by harvesting chemical energy.
Metabolic intermediates that can be either used to make the subunits of macromolecules or oxidized to generate ATP.
Metabolic process that stops short of oxidizing glucose or other organic intermediate such as pyruvate or a derivative as a terminal electron acceptor.
Protein complexes within which chlorophyll and other light-gathering pigments are organized.
The Calvin Cycle
Is the reverse of TCA- it takes all those "free" sunlight generated ATP's and NADPH2+ and adds CO2 to simple sugars to make more.
Describes opposing orientations of the two strands of DNA in the double helix.
Sequence of these nucleotides in a tRNA molecule that is complementary to a codon in mRNA.
In gene regulation, a protein that enhances the ability of RNA polymerase to initiate transcription.
a type of dna replication where replication is moving along in both directions from the starting point. This creates two replication forks, moving in opposite directions.
The process of duplicating or producing an exact copy of a polynucleotide strand such as DNA.
Process of transferring genetic information coded in DNA into messenger RNA (mRNA)
Process by which genetic information in the messenger RNA directs the order of amino acids in protein.
In DNA structure, the nucleobases that characteristically hydrogen bond to one another; A is complementary to T and G is complementary to C
Weak attraction between a positively charged hydrogen atom of one compound and a negatively charged atom of another compound
Messenger RNA (mRNA)
Single stranded RNA that is translated to make protein.
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
Type of RNA present in ribosomes.
Transfer RNA (tRNA)
Type of RNA that delivers the appropriate amino acid to the ribosome during translation.
Enzymes that synthesize DNA; they use on strand as a template to make the complementary strand.
In DNA synthesis, the site at which the double helix is being unwound to expose the single strands that can function as templates.
Enzyme that unwinds the DNA helix ahead of the replication fork.
Nucleic acid fragment synthesized as a result of the discontinuous replication of the lagging strand of DNA.
Enzyme that forms covalent bonds between adjacent fragments of DNA
The functional unit of a genome.
Complete set of genetic information in a cell.
Nucleotide sequence to which RNA polymerase binds to initiate transcription.
Region located immediately downstream of a promoter to which a repressor can bind.
In transcription, a DNA sequence that stops the process.
Ribosome binding site
Sequence of nucleotides in bacterial mRNA to which a ribosome binds.
Set of three adjacent nucleotides that encode either an amino acid or the termination of the polypeptide.
Sequence of three nucleotides in a tRNA molecule that is complementary to a codon in mRNA.
Codon at which translation is initiated;in prokaryotes, typically the first AUG after a ribosome binding site.
Codon that does not code for an amino acid and is not recognized by a tRNA; signals the end of the polypedtide chain.
Grouping of nucleotides in sequential triplets; an mRNA molecule has three possible reading frames.
Communication between bacterial cells by means of small molecules, permitting the cells to sense the density of cells.
Two-component regulatory system
Mechanism of gene regulation that uses a sensor and a response regulator.
An agent capable of activating specific genes.A molecule that inhibits the action of the repressor of an operon, preventing it from freely binding with the operator gene and disabling its function.
Protein that binds to the operator site and prevents transcription.
Molecule that binds to an inactive repressor, thereby allowing it to function as a repressor.
The microbial world
pH scale varies by a factor of 10
pH is a logarithmic measurement of hydrogen ion concentration on scale from 0-14 that indicates the acidity or alkalinity of a solution
Deoxyribose is missing one oxygen