Pathogenic Microbiology - Chapters 1-7

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Pathogenic Microbiology - Chapters 1-7
2013-09-24 19:09:43

Cards for Lecture Exam 1
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  1. Binary fission
    A sexual process of reproduction in which one cell divides to form two daughter cells.
  2. Generation Time
    Time it takes for the number of cells in a population to double...the doubling time
  3. Biofilm
    Polymer-encased microbial community
  4. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS)
    Are high-molecular weight compounds secreted by microorganisms into their environment.
  5. Aseptic technique
    Use of specific methods and sterile materials to exclude contaminating microbes from an environment.
  6. Colony
    A distinct mass of cells arising from a single cell.
  7. Agar
    Polysaccharide extracted from marine algae that is used to solidify microbiological media.
  8. Petri Dish
    Two part dish of glass or plastic often used to contain medium solidified with agar on which bacteria are grown.
  9. Exponential or log-phase growth
    In bacterial growth curve, stage in which cells multiply exponentially; log phase
  10. Primary and secondary metabolite production
  11. Psychrophile
    Microorganism that grows best between -5 and 15 degrees C
  12. Mesophile
    Bacteria that grow most rapidly at temperatures between 20 and 45 degrees C.
  13. Thermophile
    Organism with an optimum growth temperature between 25-70 degrees C.
  14. Obligate aerobe
    Organisms that require O2 for growth
  15. Obligate anaerobe
    Organisms that cannot multiply if O2 is present
  16. Facultative anaerobe
    Organism that grows best in the presence of oxygen, but can grown without it also.
  17. Neutrophile (PH)
    Organisms that can live and multiply within the range of pH5 to pH8 (pH7)
  18. Acidophile (PH)
    Organisms that grow optimally at a pH below 5.5
  19. Alkalophile (PH)
    Organisms that grow optimally at a pH above 8.5
  20. Halotolerant
    Organisms that can grow in relatively high salt concentations.
  21. Halophile
    Organism that prefers or requires a high salt medium to grow.
  22. Complex media
    Medium for growing bacteria that has some ingredients of variable chemical composition.
  23. Chemically defined Media
    A culture medium composed of exact quantities of pure chemicals; generally used for scientific experiments when nutrients must be precisely controlled.
  24. Selective Media
    Culture medium that inhibits the growth of certain microorganisms and therefore favors the growth of desired microorganisms.
  25. Differential Media
    Cuture media that contain certain ingredients such as sugars in combination with pH indicators
  26. Fastidious
    Exacting; refers to organisms that require growth factors.
  27. Germicide
    Agent that kills microorganisms and inactivates viruses.
  28. Bacteriocidal agent
    Kills bacteria
  29. Preservation
    The process of inhibiting the growth of microorganisms in products to delay spoilage.
  30. Pasteurization
    Process of heating food or other substances under controlled conditions to kill pathogens and reduce the total number of microorganisms without damaging the substance.
  31. Decontamination
    Treatment to reduce the number of pathogens to a level considered to be safe.
  32. Sanitization
    To treat and item to reduce the microbial population to a level that meets accepted health standards.
  33. Antiseptics
    A disinfectant that is non-toxic enough to be used on skin.
  34. Disinfection
    Process of reducing or eliminating pathogenic microorganisms or viruses in or on a material so that they are no longer a hazard.
  35. Disinfectant
    A chemical used to destroy many microorganisms and viruses.
  36. Sterilization
    The process of destroying or removing all microorganisms and viruses through physical or chemical means.
  37. Sterile
    Completely free of all microorganisms and viruses; an absolute form
  38. Sterilant
    A chemical used to destroy all microorganisms and viruses in a product, rendering it sterile.
  39. D-value
    Abbreviation for the decimal reduction time.
  40. Non-critical instruments
    Medical instruments and surfaces such as stethoscopes and countertops that only come into contact with unbroken skin.
  41. Semi-critical instruments
    Medical instruments such as endoscopes that come into contact with mucous membranes, but do not penetrate the body tissues.
  42. Critical instuments
    Medical instruments such as needles and scalpels that come into direct contact with body tissue.
  43. Terminal cleaning
    Describes a cleaning method used in healthcare environments to control the spread of infections.
  44. Lord Lister
    Father of modern antisepsis.
  45. Catabolism
    Cellular processes that harvest the energy released during the breakdown of compounds such as glucose, using it to synthesize ATP.
  46. Anabolism
    Cellular processes that synthesize and assemble the subunits of macromolecules, using the energy of ATP; biosynthesis
  47. Metabolism
    Sum total of all the enzymatic chemical reactions of a cell.
  48. Potential energy
    Stored energy; it can exist in a variety of forms including chemical bonds, a rock on the top of a hill, and water behind a dam
  49. Kinetic Energy
    Energy of motion
  50. Enzyme
    A protein that functions as a catalyst, speeding up a biological reaction.
  51. Metabolic pathway
    Series of sequential chemical reactions
  52. Substrate
    Substance on which an enzyme acts to form products. Also can be a surface on which an organism will grow.
  53. Substrate-level phosphorylation
    synthesis of ATP using the energy released in a energy-releasing chemical reaction during the breakdown of the energy source.
  54. Active Site
    Site to an enzyme to which the substrate binds; also known as the catalytic site.
  55. enzyme-substrate complex
    Transient form of an enzyme bound to its substrate as the enzyme converts the substrate into a product.
  56. Co-factor
    Non-protein component requires for the activity of some enzymes.
  57. Oxidative phosphorylation
    Synthesis of ATP using the energy of a proton motive force created by harvesting chemical energy.
  58. Precursor metabolities
    Metabolic intermediates that can be either used to make the subunits of macromolecules or oxidized to generate ATP.
  59. Fermentation
    Metabolic process that stops short of oxidizing glucose or other organic intermediate such as pyruvate or a derivative as a terminal electron acceptor.
  60. Photosystem
    Protein complexes within which chlorophyll and other light-gathering pigments are organized.
  61. The Calvin Cycle
    Is the reverse of TCA- it takes all those "free" sunlight generated ATP's and NADPH2+ and adds CO2 to simple sugars to make more.
  62. Antiparallel
    Describes opposing orientations of the two strands of DNA in the double helix.
  63. Anti-codon
    Sequence of these nucleotides in a tRNA molecule that is complementary to a codon in mRNA.
  64. Activator
    In gene regulation, a protein that enhances the ability of RNA polymerase to initiate transcription.
  65. Bi-directional replication
    a type of dna replication where replication is moving along in both directions from the starting point. This creates two replication forks, moving in opposite directions.
  66. Replication
    The process of duplicating or producing an exact copy of a polynucleotide strand such as DNA.
  67. Transcription
    Process of transferring genetic information coded in DNA into messenger RNA (mRNA)
  68. Translation
    Process by which genetic information in the messenger RNA directs the order of amino acids in protein.
  69. Complementarity
    In DNA structure, the nucleobases that characteristically hydrogen bond to one another; A is complementary to T and G is complementary to C
  70. Hydrogen bonds
    Weak attraction between a positively charged hydrogen atom of one compound and a negatively charged atom of another compound
  71. Messenger RNA (mRNA)
    Single stranded RNA that is translated to make protein.
  72. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
    Type of RNA present in ribosomes.
  73. Transfer RNA (tRNA)
    Type of RNA that delivers the appropriate amino acid to the ribosome during translation.
  74. DNA polymerase
    Enzymes that synthesize DNA; they use on strand as a template to make the complementary strand.
  75. Replication Fork
    In DNA synthesis, the site at which the double helix is being unwound to expose the single strands that can function as templates.
  76. Helicase
    Enzyme that unwinds the DNA helix ahead of the replication fork.
  77. Okazaki fragments
    Nucleic acid fragment synthesized as a result of the discontinuous replication of the lagging strand of DNA.
  78. DNA ligase
    Enzyme that forms covalent bonds between adjacent fragments of DNA
  79. Gene
    The functional unit of a genome.
  80. Genome
    Complete set of genetic information in a cell.
  81. Promoter
    Nucleotide sequence to which RNA polymerase binds to initiate transcription.
  82. Operator
    Region located immediately downstream of a promoter to which a repressor can bind.
  83. Terminator
    In transcription, a DNA sequence that stops the process.
  84. Ribosome binding site
    Sequence of nucleotides in bacterial mRNA to which a ribosome binds.
  85. Codon
    Set of three adjacent nucleotides that encode either an amino acid or the termination of the polypeptide.
  86. Anti-codon
    Sequence of three nucleotides in a tRNA molecule that is complementary to a codon in mRNA.
  87. Start Codon
    Codon at which translation is initiated;in prokaryotes, typically the first AUG after a ribosome binding site.
  88. Stop codon
    Codon that does not code for an amino acid and is not recognized by a tRNA; signals the end of the polypedtide chain.
  89. Reading frame
    Grouping of nucleotides in sequential triplets; an mRNA molecule has three possible reading frames.
  90. Quorum sensing
    Communication between bacterial cells by means of small molecules, permitting the cells to sense the density of cells.
  91. Two-component regulatory system
    Mechanism of gene regulation that uses a sensor and a response regulator.
  92. Inducer
    An agent capable of activating specific genes.A molecule that inhibits the action of the repressor of an operon, preventing it from freely binding with the operator gene and disabling its function.
  93. Repressor
    Protein that binds to the operator site and prevents transcription.
  94. Corepressor
    Molecule that binds to an inactive repressor, thereby allowing it to function as a repressor.
  95. The microbial world
  96. pH
    • pH scale varies by a factor of 10
    • pH is a logarithmic measurement of hydrogen ion concentration on scale from 0-14 that indicates the acidity or alkalinity of a solution
  97. Monosaccharides
    Deoxyribose is missing one oxygen