5 TOB Epithelia & Glands

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5 TOB Epithelia & Glands
2016-09-15 11:42:15
TOB Exam2
MBS TOB Exam 2
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  1. What are some differences between epithelial cells and connective tissue cells?
    • Epithelial cells: tightly packed in single/multi-layered sheets, have apical/basal polarity, make a SMALL amount of ECM components
    • CT cells: more isolated, less polarized, make a VARIABLE amount of ECM components
  2. What are the 3 main types of epithelia?
    • 1) covering and lining epithelia
    • 2) glandular epithelia
    • 3) sensory epithelia
  3. How much space is between the cells of contiguous epithelial sheets?
    there is little extracellular space between cells
  4. How do epithelial cells adhere firmly to adjacent cells?
    using cell adhesion molecules that form specialized cell-cell junctions to prevent tearing
  5. basement membrane
    • a thin layer composed of the basal lamina (secreted by the epithelium) and the reticular lamina (secreted by the connective tissue)
    • it provides physical support, a substrate for attachment, and a mesh for filtration
  6. True or False: epithelia are avascular?
    TRUE, blood vessels that nourish the epithelium are located in ADJACENT connective tissue
  7. Do epithelial cells have nerve endings?
    Yes. Ample nerve endings. 
  8. How can epithelia subjects to wear and tear repair itself?
    it has a high capacity for renewal by stem cells, especially in epithelia that are subjected to wear and tear such as skin
  9. What germ layer is epithelia derived from?
    ALL THREE! diverse in origin; derived from all three germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, & ectodeterm)
  10. Which surface of epithelia is free not bound?
    • the apical surface
    • however in some cases (stratified or pseudostratified) not every cell in an epithelium reaches the surface
    • the cells usually display apical-basal polarity
  11. Which surface of epithelial cells is often specialized?
    • apical surface
    • (eg. microvilli in the intestine, stereocilia in the epididymis, cilia in the trachea)
  12. In what ways can the epithelia basal surface be specialized?
    it can be specialized for adhesion to underlying connective tissue, or folded and interdigitated with its neighbors (eg. kidney tubules)
  13. What are found on the lateral surfaces of epithelia cells?
    • cell-cell junctions (3 types basically)
    • 1) tight junctions: seal the epithelium
    • 2) adherens junctions/desmosomes: bind neighbors together
    • 3) gap junctions: allow intercellular communication
  14. epithelia cells rest on a:
    • basement membrane
    • it's usually made up of two structures, the basal lamina & the reticular lamina
  15. basal lamina
    • forms a continuous 50-80 nm thick layer beneath the epithelial cell's basal plasma membrane
    • it's composed of collagen type IV, laminin, heparan sulfate proteoglycan, & and a number of other proteins that form a finely fibrillar meshwork
  16. reticular lamina
    • in addition to the basal lamina, the recticular lamina makes up the basement membrane
    • it's an underlying layer of small collagen fibrils (reticular fibers, lots of collagen type IV) embedded in an amorphous matrix
  17. Why might epithelial cells also be polarized along the plane of the epithelium, unlike isolated cells?
    planar cell polarity (the difference between apical & basal surfaces of epithelial cells) exists to build planar-patterned structures; skin, hair, auditory hairs cells, & cilia
  18. What are EIGHT functions of epithelia?
    • 1) protection:  e.g. epidermis of the skin provides mechanical protection, waterproofing & insulation
    • 2) absorption: eg. epithelial lining of small intestine absorbs nutrients
    • 3) reproductive: seminiferous tubule (epithelia contains sertoli cells)
    • 4) secretion: eg. mucous by goblet cells
    • 5) sensory reception: smelling, hearing, seeing
    • 6) surface transport: eg. tracheal cilia cells move mucous from lungs toward oral cavity
    • 7) trans-epithelial transport: kidney tubules transport salt & water from the lumen of collecting tubules back into bloodstream through the interstitial space
    • 8) contraction of myoepithelial cells: eg. to squeeze milk from excretory lobules of mammary glands
  19. How is epithelia classified?
    • 1) by the number of cell layers
    • 2) by the shape/height of cells
    • 3) whether they are ciliated or non-ciliated 
  20. simple
    • signifies a single layer of epithelial cells
    • typically found in tissues specialized for absorption & secretion but NOT subject to extensive wear & tear
    • eg. endothelium, mesothelium, bowman’s capsule, distal and proximal convoluted kidney tubule, small intestine, lung alveoli
  21. stratified
    • many layers (two or more) of epithelial cells
    • found in tissues SUBJECTED to wear and tear
    • eg. skin, oral cavity, esophagus, anal canal, vagina
  22. Where is the shape or height of epithelium cells observed?
    the shape of epithelium cells is classified by observing their most apical (outermost) layer
  23. squamous
    cells that are thin, flat & scale-like
  24. cuboidal
    cube-shaped cells
  25. columnar
    cell that are taller than they are wide
  26. simple squamous (4)
    • a single layer of thin, flat & scale-like cells specialized for filtration, diffusion, osmosis & secretion
    • 1. cells lining capillaries (endothelium)
    • 2. serosal cells lining mesentery
    • 3. cells lining Bowman's capsule of kidney
    • 4. cells lining lung alveoli
  27. What type of epithelial cell are the arrows pointing toward? (dark purple cells)
    • mesothelium - a form of simple squamous
    • lines body cavities and allows passage of tissue fluids into and out of these cavity by diffusion (also lubricates to prevent friction)
  28. What type of cells are the arrows pointing toward? (dark purple cells)
    • endothelium - a form of simple squamous epithelia found in blood vessels
    • these cells are specialized for passive transport (diffusion) of fluids
    • endothelial cells of capillary (cross-section)
    • simple squamous epithelium
  29. simple cuboidal (1)
    • a single layer of cube-shaped cells specialized for secretion and absorption
    • 1. cells in kidney tubules
    • collecting tubule in kidney made up of simple cuboidal epithelium 
    • secretory, excretory & absorptive functions
    • simple columnar epithelium of small intestine
    • specialized for absorption
  30. simple columnar
    • single layer of cells whose height is greater than their width specialized for secretion and absorption
    • these cells may or may not be ciliated
    • 1. intestinal epithelium cells
  31. pseudostratified columnar (2)
    • epithelial cells that appear to be stratified (have more than two layers) because cell nuclei look like they're in a different layer, however each cell actually rests on the basement membrane and there's really only a single layer of cells
    • 1. ducts in the male reproductive system: EPIDIDYMIS 
    • 2. respiratory tract: TRACHEA
    • these cells may be ciliated, and if so are specialized for secretion and propulsion of mucus by beating ciliary action
    • *when in doubt whether something is pseudostratified or stratified cuboidal or columnar, GUESSING pseudostratified means you will be right 99% of the time
    • pseudostratified columnar epithelium (of the trachea)
    • specialized for propelling mucus & debris toward the throat
  32. stratified squamous
    • consists of flattened (squamous) cells on the surface of multiple layers of cells; usually protective
    • 1. keratinized/cornified: differentiating cells formed by mitosis at the basal layer that make a lot of keratin, lose their nuclei, & move apically to replace the outermost squamous layer of cells (eg. skin)
    • 2. non-keratinized/non-cornified (moist): cells that produce less keratin & apical squamous cells do not lose their nuclei (eg. esophagus)
    • stratified squamous keratinizing epithelium of thin skin
    • specialized for protection, waterproofing
    • stratified squamous keratinizing epithelium of thick skin
    • top layer = stratum corneum (dead)
    • stratified squamous NON-keratinizing (hypokeratinizing) epithelium
    • found in vagina, oral cavity, esophagus & anal canal 
    • nuclei present in surface layer
  33. stratified cuboidal
    • multiple layers of cube-like cells found in epithelium lining large glandular ducts
    • they're specialized for protection
    • stratified cuboidal epithelium
    • lines large excretory ducts of exocrine glands such as salivary gland; functions in protection
  34. stratified columnar
    • multiple layers of cells whose height is greater than their width specialized for secretion and protection
    • 1.epithelium lining of very large glandular ducts.
    • 2. portions of male urethra
    • (others: ocular conjunctiva of the eye, parts of the pharynx & anus, female's uterus, male's vas deferens)
  35. stratified columnar epithelia
  36. transitional epithelium
    • unusual stratified cuboidal epithelium whose appearance varies depending on whether it's contracted or expanded
    • it's specialized for distension and contraction to accommodate the changes in volume of urine 
    • apical cells are dome shaped, some are bi-nucleated
    • 1. lining of renal pelvis
    • 2. ureter
    • 3. urinary bladder
    • 4. initial part of urethra
    • transitional epithelium of urinary bladder
    • has umbrella cells & occasional bi-nucleated cells in superficial layer; is specialized for waterproofing, distention
  37. glands
    • single or groups of cells specialized for secretion
    • glands are derived from epithelia (glandular epithelia)
  38. What are the two types of glands?
    exocrine and endocrine
  39. endocrine gland
    • glands that secrete secretions into the bloodstream through the interstitial space
    • they do NOT have ducts and are NOT all derived from epithelia
  40. exocrine glands
    glands that release their secretions into ducts continuous with the surface epithelium of an organ (eg. in skin or gastrointestinal tract)
  41. How are exocrine cells classified?
    • 1. the number of cells in the gland: unicellular or multicellular
    • 2. the duct system: simple or compound
    • 3. architecture of terminal branches: tubular or acinar
    • 4. nature of secretion: mucous or serous
    • 5. mode of secretion: merocrine, apocrine, holocrine
  42. simple glands
    • either do not branch or branch only once
    • type of exocrine gland classification
  43. compound glands
    • branch repeatedly to form a branched tree
    • type of exocrine gland classification
  44. tubular glands
    • form terminal tubular lobules
    • type of exocrine gland classification
  45. acinar glands
    • form terminal rounded, grape-shaped, lobules
    • type of exocrine gland classification
    • compound acinar gland
    • the branched duct system means it's compound
  46. mucous secretion
  47. serous secretion
  48. submandibular gland
    • a branched compound tubuloacinar salivary gland whose secretory portion contains BOTH mucus and serous cells
  49. Merocrine
    • secretion by exocytosis
    • eg. mechanism for the secretion of mucus by goblet cells by mucus or serous by salivary glands
    • type of secretion done by exocrine glands
  50. Apocrine
    • secretion by decapitation of cells’ apical region
    • mechanism for the production of milk in mammary gland
    • type of secretion done by exocrine glands
  51. Holocrine
    • secretion of whole cells’ content following apoptosis
    • mechanisms for the production of sebum (mixture of lipids) by the sebaceous gland
    • type of secretion done by exocrine glands

  52. What type of cell is stained darkly? What is it's mode of secretion? What does it secrete?
    • Goblet cell - UNIcellular gland found in the intestinal epithelium that helps keep it moist
    • uses merocrine (secretory vesicles, exocytosis) to secrete mucus
  53. Cystic Fibrosis (CF) 
    • is a common inherited autosomal recessive disorder caused by malfunctioning of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CTFR), small chloride channel,
    • the CFTR channel is found in the apical membrane of epithelial cells of many organs including the lung, liver, pancreas, digestive tract, reproductive track & skin 
    • the membrane protein normally moves Cl- OUT of an epithelial cell to the covering mucus. 
    • absence of the channel results in imbalance of ion concentrations across the cell membrane and more viscous mucus
  54. Breast cancer
    • lobular carcinomas - most common types of breast cancer originates from the epithelial cells lining the milk-producing secretory lobules in the mammary gland
    • ductal carcinomas - less common types of breast cancer originates from epithelial cells lining the ductal system
  55. What type of epithelial cells are these?
    • simple sqamous - very flat cells
    • small arterial (blood) vessel
    • this type of tissue specializes to allow diffusion of gasses into/out of the tissue
  56. endothelium vs. mesothelium
    • mesothelium will generally line entire body cavities
    • endothelium is seen lining smaller things, such as blood vessels
  57. What type of epithelial cells are these?
    • simple squamous epithelium
    • cells that line the Bowman's capsule of a kidney glomerulus
  58. simple columnar epithelium
  59. simple columnar; probably plasma cells (surrounding CT)
    • little black lines: simple columnar epithelium of the intestinal vili
    • the dark red/large outer cells: goblet cell
    • connective tissue is in the middle of the whole structure
    • simple columnar
    • cross-section of villi 
    • connective tissue is in the center
    • green = goblet cells
  60. pseudostratified epithelium