Membrane_Transport.txt

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Author:
spaulding001
ID:
236821
Filename:
Membrane_Transport.txt
Updated:
2013-09-24 17:05:55
Tags:
Osmosis passive active transport
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Description:
Membrane Transport of cells
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  1. Solution
    homogeneous mixture of two or morecomponents
  2. Solvent
    dissolving medium; typically water in the body
  3. Solutes
    components in smaller quantities within asolution
  4. Intracellular fluid
    nucleoplasm and cytosol
  5. Interstitial fluid
    fluid on the exterior of the cell
  6. Selective Permeability
    • The plasma membrane allows some materials to pass while excluding others.
    • This permeability influences movement both into and out of the cell.
  7. What are the two basic methods of cell membrane transport
    • Passive processes
    •  No energy is required
    • Active processes
    •  Cell must provide metabolic energy (ATP)
  8. Diffusion
    • Particles tend to distribute themselves evenly within asolution
    •  Movement is from high concentration to low concentration, or down a concentration gradient
  9. Osmosis
    • Passive Diffusion
    • Simple diffusion of water
    •  Highly polar water molecules easily cross the plasma membrane
  10. Facilitated diffusion
    • Passive Diffusion
    • Substances require a protein carrier for passive transport
    •  Transports lipid-insoluble and large substances
    •  Channel-mediate or Carrier-mediate
  11. Describe active transport
    • Substances are transported that are unable to pass bydiffusion
    •  Substances may be too large
    •  Substances may not be able to dissolve in the fat core of the membrane
    •  Substances may have to move against a concentration gradient
    •  ATP is used for transport
  12. What are two common forms of active transport
    • Active transport (solute pumping) 
    • Vesicular transport which includes
    •  Exocytosis
    •  Endocytosis
    •  Phagocytosis
    •  Pinocytosis
  13. Active transport (solute pumping)
    • Amino acids, some sugars, and ions are transported by protein carriers called solute pumps
    •  ATP energizes protein carriers
    •  In most cases, substances are moved against concentration gradients
  14. Describe vesicular transport
    • (Endocytosis)
    •  Extracellular substances are engulfed by being enclosed in a membranous vescicle
  15. What are two types of Endocytosis
    • Types of endocytosis 
    •  Phagocytosis—“cell eating” 
    •  Pinocytosis—“cell drinking”
  16. Phagocytosis
  17. Pinocytosis
  18. Prophase
    •  First part of cell division
    •  Centrioles migrate to the poles to direct assembly of mitotic spindle fibers
    •  DNA appears as double-stranded chromosomes
    •  Nuclear envelope breaks down and disappears
  19. Metaphase
    Chromosomes are aligned in the center of the cell on the metaphase plate
  20. Anaphase
    •  Chromosomes are pulled apart and toward the opposite ends of the cell
    •  Cell begins to elongate
  21. Telophase
    •  Chromosomes uncoil to become chromatin
    •  Nuclear envelope reforms around chromatin  Spindles break down and disappear
  22. Cytokinesis
    •  Begins during late anaphase and completes during telophase
    •  A cleavage furrow forms to pinch the cells into two parts

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