Ropes and knots
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What are the 2 different types of rope?
Utility rope and life safety rope
Which NFPA standard governs the design, construction, and performance criteria of ropes?
What is life safety rope used for?
Solely for supporting people
What is utility rope used for?
In most cases where supporting a person is not necessary
What are the 6 advantages to using synthetic fiber ropes?
- Thinner without sacrificing strength
- Less absorbent than natural fiber ropes
- Greater resistance to rotting and mildew
- Longer-lasting than natural fiber ropes
- Greater strength and added safety
- Some are more fire-retardant than natural fiber ropes
What are the 3 different construction methods of rope?
Braided, twisted, and kernmantle
Describe twisted rope
Also known as laid rope, natural or synthetic fibers are twisted into strands which are then twisted to make rope
Describe braided rope
Also known as braid on braid, strands are woven similar to braiding hair. Fibers stretch and all the strands are exposed to abrasion.
Describe kernmantle rope
Kern is the center core, which is composed of continuous fibers from one end of the rope to the other. The kern accounts for 70% of the rope's overall strength. The mantle is the sheath-like covering that protects the kern from dirt and abrasion. Both kern and mantle are made of synthetic fibers.
Describe dynamic ropes
Designed to be elastic, generally used by mountain climbers, constructed with overlapping or woven fibers. When loaded, the fibers pull tighter and the rope stretches.
Describe static rope
Will not stretch under load and is more suitable for rescue situations. Constructed with fibers parallel to each other which have little elasticity and limited elongation.
List the 4 parts of rope maintenance
Care, clean, inspect, and store.
What is the working end of a rope?
The part used in forming knots.
What is the running end of a rope?
The part used in lifting or hoisting.
What is the standing part of a rope?
The part between the running and working ends.
What is a bight?
A reverse in direction which forms a U-bend
What is a loop?
A circle in the rope
What is a round turn?
A circle in the rope with parallel ends.
What are the basic fire service knots?
- Safety (overhand) knot
- Half hitch
- Clove hitch
- Figure eight
- Figure eight on a bight
- Figure eight follow-through
- Figure eight bend
- Becket bend
- Reef (square) knot
- Timber hitch
- Chimney hitch
- Prussik (double fisherman)
- Water knot
What are hitches used for?
Wrapping around an object; used to secure the working end of a rope to a solid object or to tie a rope to an object prior to hoisting it.
What are loop knots used for?
To form a loop in the end of a rope, may be used to hoist tools, secure a person, or identify the end of a stored rope. Will not easily slip but are easy to untie.
What are bends used for?
To tie two ropes together. Water knot is used to join webbing together, Becket bend is used to secure two ropes of dissimilar diameter or a rope to chain, and a square knot is used to tie two ropes of equal diameter together.
What 2 things are necessary to consider before hoisting an object?
- Object must be properly secured
- Personnel have to be able to quickly remove the object
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