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Benefits to growing fruit and nut?
- high value per acre
- perennials, so long lived
- hold soil well
- soil typically not cultivated
- health benefits
- yum factor
Fruit and nut crop adaptation to the temperate zone means what?
They adjust to colder temperatures in the fall and can withstand winter temperatures below freezing.
Are all fruit and nut crops adapted to the same temperate zone? What are some factors that makes a difference?
- No. Cold hardiness varies;
- winter chilling requirements (need temps between 32 and 45F before they bloom in spring);
- summer temp requirements vary (some do poorly when summers are very hot)
- Length of growing season varies
What determines climate in temperate zone?
Latitude and longitude
What modifies climate in temperate zone?
elevation and large bodies of water
examples of regions where a modified climate is exploited for fruit growing?
Great Lakes regions do well with fruit production because they have cooler summers; West and East Coasts also benefit from cooling effects of oceans during day
Can low rainfall or humidity ever be an advantage in fruit growing? Example?
Yes. Fungal diseases like humidity, so low humid climates can be less susceptible to disease.
Important characteristics of retail and wholesale production and marketing?
- Retail: receive entire price for their product, devote time to customer service, need proximity to market, variety helps
- Wholesale: receive percent of final sale price, concentration is on growing rather than sale; variety not as important
Economic information you'd use to make a decision on which crop to grow? What do you think is most important?
Start up costs, yield, profit potential, life expectancy
Name the three pollination classes
- self-fertile (only one cultivar needed)
- partially self-fertile (set some fruit alone but bear larger crops if a different cultivar provides pollen)
- self-infertile (need pollen from a different cultivar for fruit to set)
Gains from dwarf trees?
- increased returns in early years and throughout the life of the planting
- some can be kept low enough by pruning to do most of the work from the ground
- less time to prune and harvest per amount of fruit (and most work without ladders)
what are some good nursery stock characteristics?
- guaranteed free of disease
- certified virus-free
- replace plants that fail to grow despite receiving proper care
why use a reputable nursery?
plants are state inspected and guaranteed to be free of diseases when sold
What should a homeowner consider when deciding what fruit species to plant?
- Expect that it will take time to begin bearing and that the plants have longevity.
- is it adapted to the correct zone? are the cultivars adapted to the area's climate and is it resistant to the main diseases of the area? how much space does it require? what type of care does it need?
what is meant by fruit species adaptation?
a lot of plants are sold all over the us, even though they grow well mainly in arid, mild-weather parts of the us. a lot tend to die from cold or severe disease attacks, or produce only diseased fruit
what are the general care needs for home fruit plantings?
- training and pruning
- watering, fertilizing, weed control
- winter, frost protection and fruit thinning
- pest control
- pollination needs
Important site selection decisions?
Proximity to water, topography, sunlight
Why do fruit crops make site changes so difficult?
because they're perennials
what is a desirable range in soil depth for small fruit to tree fruit crops?
small fruit - 2 feet ideal, tree fruit, 2-4 feet, with 6 being ideal
how can a soil profile help you make a decision on a soil's suitability for fruit crops?
You're looking for deep, well-drained soil.
how can you evaluate a soil for internal drainage?
dig a hole (about 2 feet) and fill it with water a couple of times to see how long it takes to empty. (less than 10 hours means soil drainage is good - more than 24 and you should find another spot)
how can you improve soils that are too heavy or too light for fruit crop growth?
add medium, break up heavy soils, raised beds
desirable pH range for most fruit crops?
exception to most fruit crops when it comes to pH?
blueberries, cranberries and lingonberries. they like 4.4-4.8
H and H+ are in the soil solution. Describe the relative amounts of these ions at pH 6, 7, and 8.
- 1x10-6, 1x10-7, 1x10-8
- so a soil with a pH of 6.0 has 10 times more hydrogen ions and 10 times less hydroxyl ions than a neutral soil
- a soil with a pH of 7 has equal amounts OH and H
- a soil with a pH of 8 has 10 times more OH and 10 times fewer hydrogen ions
why is topography important in site selection?
- topography affects local climate or microclimate. the right site lets growers produce crops that won't do well in the surrounding region.
- avoid frost pockets and windswept ridgetops
- north facing slopes good for early-blooming frost-sensitive plants
- south facing slopes hastens bloom and harvest
what practices should you consider in site preparation?
soil test and adjustments, build raised bed, control perennial weeds with herbicides
what soil practice can improve drainage along the intended planting row?
ridging or tiles - raised beds are a minimal approach
if you had to plant cleared ground that was previously wood cover or an old orchard, what practices could you use to reduce potential pathogen problems?
root removal, can do soil fumigation or solarization, choose rootstocks and cultivars resistant to soil pathogens
advantages to strawberries as fruit crops?
less time to production, no pruning
describe the plant and fruit characteristics of a strawberry
- compound leaves with three leaflets
- herbaceous perennial
- fruit is an aggregate
- botanical fruit is an achene
- fruit we eat is the receptacle tissue
- rosette of leaves from each crown - rosettes send out stolons or runners
what are the flowering types of strawberry and what climates are they adapted to?
- spring-bearing (short day) - plant in spring, fruit in mid-may - grown in SW MO, northern climates
- Day neutral or everbearing - most important for growers - CA does this and has 80 percent of commercial strawberries - fruit as long as temps are between 35 and 85
what products raise pH and which lower?
- lime raise (L-Lift)
- sulfur lower (S-subtract)
what are the different production systems for strawberries?
- matted row
- annual hill (or plasticulture)
- plastic tunnel
describe matted row system
- v. labor intensive, mostly for home gardens
- space 1.5-2 ft apart in rows, runners fill in the rows, straw mulch during winter and renovate after harvest
describe annual hill (plasticulture) system
- 1 foot in row and five feet between rows, double rows on raised, plastic covered beds
- runneers are removed
- fabric row cover during winter only
- removed after harvest
- expensive, but choice of commercial producers
describe plastic tunnel production system
- annual hill with a low or high tunnel over rows
- earlier ripening, higher yields, better colored fruit, less pests
- protection from weather hazards
how do you decide on strawberry cultivars to plant?
are they adapted to region? resistant to disease? what yield ability do they have? fruit size?
soil prep and planting procedures for strawberries?
- choose site, sample soil, test, cover crop
- fumigation is commonly used but there are hazards
- form raised beds (this is common b/c it makes for good soil drainage)
what care is given to strawberry plants after planting and during winter?
fertilize, remove flowers and runners
how are strawberry harvest and renewal managed?
harvest by hand every 2-3 days
advantages and disadvantages to planting in fall?
- fall is good for hardier plants, allows roots to establish so they're ready to go in spring
- disadvantage is that you risk winter injury
advantages, disadvantages of planting in spring?
- plant is concentrating on root development and not 100% on fruit production
- frequent rains can be an issue too
- but for tender plants in areas with cold winters, spring is good
how would you lay out fruit plants on a level ground
- dwarfs in hedge rows, standard and semidwarf in squares or rectangles, larger trees in squares (equipment runs under the tree)
- make between-row spacing large enough for equipment
- north to south optimizes light interception
how would you lay out fruit plants on ground steeper than 10 percent
orient along the contour, maybe construct a terrace
what determines plant spacing in row and between rows?
size of mature tree, room for equipment
if you know in-row and between row spacing, how can you determine the number of plants you need per acre?
#plants/acre = 43,560 divided by (ft btwen rows x ft betwen plants in rows)
advantages of a high density orchard compared to a standard density orchard?
- high density greatly increase returns, especially in early life of the orchard
- reduced pruning costs per amt of fruit produced
- higher quality fruit
how would you hand plant a young fruit tree?
- plant day of, if possible
- soak roots in buckets of water
- string to lay out rows and measure off each tree's spot with a tape measure (mark hole with flag)
- dip roots in galltrol solution before planting, prune (if in spring)
is planting depth for fruit trees always the same?
no - depends on the rootstock, but you want them no more than four inches deeper than the trees grew in the nursery
how do you care for a newly set young fruit tree?
- for some dwarfing rootstocks, stake or trellis so wind doesn't blow them over
- protect from sunscald, borer insects and rodents by wrapping white plastic tree guards around them
- can sink a 14 inch wire mes guard around trees to protect from rodents
- mulch, preemergence herbicides
- irrigate frequently
what important fruit character distinguishes blackberry from raspberry?
harvested raspberries leave their receptacles on the plant, while a harvested blueberry keeps its receptacle
define biennial cane, primocane, floricane
- primocanes are first-year bramble canes (do not fruit except in primocane-bearing varieties of red and yellow raspberries)
- floricanes are second year cans that flower and fruit (then die)
- biennial cane means its first year cane won't fruit but the second year will
Name four common production systems for brambles
- freestanding, biennial cane, hand-pruned
- freestanding, biennial cane, machine-hedged
- freestanding, annual cane, machine-pruned
- trellised, biennial cane, hand-pruned
what distinguishes the different production systems for brambles?
some cultivars require a trellis and others yield best when trellised; some are served best by hand pruning and harvesting
Considerations when choosing a bramble to plant?
- adapted to climate most important
- resistance to the main diseases and insects of the area are important
- ripening season, fruit flavor, size, yields
- cane erectness
site and soil characteristic considerations for brambles?
- look for no problems with root rot, verticillium wilt or or crown gall
- has it been planted to crops or weeds that are susceptible to verticilium wilt?
- away from wild brambles
- well-drained soil and high amounts of organic matter
- test for salt content (can't bee too salty) and pH
certified nursery plant does what for brambles growers?
certifies the plant to be virus-free
what is the usual propogation unit for the bramble?
- field-grown transplants started from layers that have been inspected for viruses
- (some start with tissue-cultured plantlets)
what is a hedgerow in brambles?
plants touching each other, formed by root suckers filling in spaces between original plants
how do growers keep brambles in a hill system?
by not allowing root suckers in between originally set plants (or tip layers to grow)
what does summer tipping do for some brambles?
it can induce lateral branching and keep the canes more upright
brambles are self fertile. do bees help when they're in bloom?
yes. incomplete pollination can make for crumbly raspberry
harvesting options for brambles? acreage needed to justify?
- most are machine harvested because of thorns, but you can hand harvest
- self-propelled shakers or over the row harvesting systems around popular
- machine harvesting requires at least 25 acres
basic practices used in training?
create a strong framework, initiate branching, let light through
when is training usually done?
first 2-3 years
when is pruning usually done? what does it do for the plant?
- done in dormant season mostly
- summer - it's for thinning, to direct growth, let light into the tree
what is the advantage of waiting until late winter to prune?
avoid subzero temp damage
what are the basic pruning cuts?
- thinning - cut all the way to the back of a branch (especially important to whips) - reduce number of new shoots
- heading - releases apical dominance (cut back to the bud) - encourages more shoots to grow
- pinching - removing part of a new shoot while it's still growing
what is the result following growing season of cutting a dormant shoot by half?
promotes vegetative growth below the cut
what is the result, following the growing season, of cutting a dormant shoot back to the junction of an underlying lateral shoot?
what is the result of pinching a growing shoot during summer?
bud break below
how can a grower obtain wide angled limbs in a tree?
spreading tool, clothes pins, prop
what is the goal of pruning a small fruit plant that grows in a bush habit?
reduce fruit load, more light onto foliage to develop buds
how do central leader and modified central leader training systems differ?
modfied starts as central leader but the leader is cut out so there are multiple leader-like branches
what are you trying to accomplish in renovating a neglected mature tree?
get more fruit throughout instead of only on the peripheral part of the tree - thinning cuts needed (heading will make more dense)
genus and three species of grape?
- Genus Vitis
- species vinifera, labrusca, aestivalis, riparia, rupestris, rotundifolia
what grape species account for the most world wide grape production?
what distinguishes bunch grapes from muscadine grapes?
muscadine is native to S.E. U.S. - bunch grapes grow in bunches and are harvested that way, muscadine is harvested by indvidual grape
if you wanted to establish a grape vineyard, how would you decide which species to plant?
hardiness zone, summer months, what are you doing with it?, resistance to pests
if you lived in a northern US state with cool summer temps and you wanted to plant a later ripening grape cultivar, how might you site a vineyard in regard to slope?
slope facing south - more sunlight so the vines should grow sooner, and that means enough time for the fruit to ripen later in the season
grape pollination requirement?
self-pollinating, stamens pop out and are released, wind helps
what are the major structural parts of a grapevine?
roots-trunk-head-cordons-shoots (become canes)-spur (leaves, nodes)
why are rootstocks used in grape growing?
pest resistance (phyloxera) soil adaptation
what is the purpose for a grape trellis?
- help train and support
- many systems because of mechanical harvests
balanced pruning is often used in hand pruning of grapes. an example is 30 buds left for the first pound of cane wood removed plus 10 additional buds for each additional pound removed. what is the pruner accomplishing with this?
crop load is balanced with vegetative pruning - buds will ultimately grow into shoots that fruit - so 100 more shoots, more buds, more flowers
what do canopy management practices like shoot thinning, shoot positioning and leaf removal do for the remaining foliage? what does cluster thinning do for the grapevine?
ideal light exposure, better fruit quality
how does a grower determine when to harvest grapes?
sugar content, taste, acidity, pH, color
functions of a good groundcover?
minimize water and wind erosion, provide firm travel surface, displace weeds, increase soil organic matter
what is the usual orchard floor management in humid climate?
perennial groundcover between rows, mostly grass along with vegetation free areas within rows (generally 3-4 feet from trees)
how does orchard floor management differ for nut v. tree fruit orchards?
nuts require a clean orchard floor to allow for a shake and sweep harvest
what type of groundcover would you plant to lessen competition with fruit plants?
- something easy and adapted to your climate, since you want to manage your fruit crops and not your groundcover
- In MO, cool-season plants such as sod, fescue, creeping red fescue (less competition during fruit bearing season)
what do organic mulches accomplish in fruit plantings?
preserve moisture, suppress weeds, keeps roots cooler
what should you consider with organic mulch and fruit trees?
potential for rodent damage on tree bark of lower trunk
how can you accomplish weed control within the plant row?
- preemergent or post emergent herbicides
- organic - corn gluten meal
- mechanical hoes, flaming, hand hoeing and pulling
- weeder geese but you've got to watch those sneaky fruit-eaters
soil characteristics that ericaceae thrive one?
sandy, peaty, acidic, high organic matter, high water table soils
basic plant habits?
- cranberry - trailing, woody, evergreen vines
- lingonberry - similar to crans but v. short vines
- blueberry - woody, decidious, upright bushes
when do plants in ericaceae begin to bear fruit? what is fruit called and what is its structure?
- 3 years
- true berries, single ovary with many inconspicuous seeds
compare the planting sites of cranberry, blueberry and lingonberry
- cranberry - high startup cost because of bog construction
- blueberry often on raised beds
- lingonberry often on narrow, low raised beds
how are plants in ericaceae propogated?
- shoot and rhizome cuttings for cranberry and lingoneberry
- hardwood and softwood cuttings rooted under a mist system for blueberries
if pH is too high, what happens to plants in the ericaceae family?
iron deficiency - interveinal chlorosis
how are cranberries and lingonberries trained?
no early training, after establishment some training and pruning needed- remove flower buds or fruit the first two years
what classes of cane age do we want in a mature highbush blueberry and in what proportion?
- 20% 1 year renewal
- 60% 2-4 year
- 20% 5-7 year
how is water used in blueberry, cranberry and lingonberry culture?
- cranbeery uses water for plant growth, weed control, cold protection, harvest
- ligonberry and blueberry use for plant growth, frost protection at bloom