Anatomy Chapter 2 - Biochemistry

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rose11
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236869
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Anatomy Chapter 2 - Biochemistry
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2013-09-25 00:23:49
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Anatomy
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Biochemistry section in chapter two
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  1. Organic Compunds
    Carbon containing protons
  2. Inorganic Compunds
    Lack carbon and tend to be simpler compunds
  3. Important Organic Compounds
    Carbohydrates, lipids, protiens, and nucleic acids.
  4. Important inorganic compounds
    Water, salts, and many acids and bases
  5. Inorganic Compound: Water
    Most abundant Properties that make water vital: High heat capacity, Polarity/Solvent Properties, Chemical Reactivity, and Cushioning.
  6. Water: High Heat Capacity
    Absorbs and releases large amounts of heat before its tempeture changes appreciably.
  7. Water: Polarity/ Solvent Properties
    Because nutrients, repiratory gases and wastes can dissolve in water, it can act as a transport and exchange medium in the body.
  8. Water: Chemical reactivity
    Water is an important reactant, added to things to help the proccess along.
  9. Water: Cushioning
    Protective function
  10. Inorganic compounds: Salts
    Vital to body functioning because when it is dissolved in body fluids, salts, easily separate into there ions. This process is called dissociation, it occurs easily because the salts are already in ion form. All salts are electrolytes.
  11. Inorganic compounds: Acids
    A substance that can release hydrogen ions. Proton donors. Acids that ionize completely are called strong acids and the opposite, weak acids, ionize incompletly.
  12. Inorganic compounds: Bases
    Proton acceptors. Any base containing a proton (H+) is a strong base.
  13. Inorganic compounds: Nuetraliztion Reaction
    Acids and bases are mxed to form water and salt.
  14. Inorganic compounds: Buffers
    Chemicals that regulate acid-base (or pH) balance. preset in body fluids.
  15. Organic Compounds: Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates
    Surgars, starches, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. 2 hydrogen atoms to every 1 oxygen atom.
  16. Organic Compounds: Carbohydrates: monosaccharides
    simple sugars
  17. Glucose
    blood sugars
  18. Organic Compounds: Carbohydrates: Disaccharides
     Double sugars, are formed when two simple sugars are joined by a synthesis reaction know has dehydration synthesis
  19. Organic Compounds: Carbohydrates: Polysaccharides
    Many sugars, long branching chains of linked simple sugars.
  20. Organic Compounds: Lipids: Lipids
    Contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms. In lipids carbon and hydrogen atoms far out number oxygen atoms.
  21. Organic Compounds: Lipids: Nuetral fats
    or triglycerides are composed of two types of building blocks; fatty acids and glycerol.
  22. Organic Compounds: Lipids: Phospholipids
    Similar to nuetral fats differ in the fact that a phosphorus-containing group is always part of the molecule and takes the place of one of the fatty acid chains. Phospholipids have two fatty acids instead of three.
  23. Organic Compounds: Lipids: Steriods
    Flat molecules formed of four interlocking rings. Steriods are made largely of hydrogen and carbon.
  24. Organic Compounds: Protiens: Protiens
    Contain carbon, oxygen and hydrogen. Each type of amino acids distinct properties the sequence in which they are bound together produces protiens that vary widely in structre and function.
  25. Amino acids
    Building blocks of protiens. Amino acids have an amine group which gives them basic properties and an acid group which allows them to act as acids. All idenical except the single group of atoms called the R-group.
  26. Organic Compounds: Protiens: Fibrous Protiens
    Strandlike, structual protiens. Important in binding structure together and providing strength in body tissue. Stable.
  27. Organic Compounds: Protiens: Globular protiens
    Mobile, and spherical molecules that play crucial roles in in virtually all biological processes. Also called functional protiens because they do things rather than form structures. Unstable. Hydrogen bonds are nessasary for maining there structure, but hydrogen bonds are fragile.
  28. Active sites
    Are particular collections of atoms that on the surface fit and interact chemically with other molecules of complementary shape and charge.
  29. Enzymes
    Functional protiens that act as biological catalyst. Enzymes are reusable because they are not changed in doing there job. Determine which reactions are possible at a particular time. Most are produced in inactive form and must be activate in someway.
  30. Nucleic acids
    They make up genes. Composed of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and phospherous.
  31. Nucleotides
    Building blocks of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phospherous.  DNA and RNA. Thymine, Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, Uracil.
  32. DNA
    The genetic matierial found wihin cell nucleus. Fundamental roles: Replicates  itself exactly before a cell divides, insuring that the genetic information it ech cell is idenical, and it provides the instructions for building every protien in the body. Bases are A G T and C and its sugar is deoxyribose.
  33. RNA
    Located outside the nucleus and can be considered the "molecular slave" of DNA. RNA carries out the orders  for protien synthesis issued by DNA. Bases are A G C and U and sugar is ribose.
  34. ATP
    Provides form of chemical energy that is usable  by all body cells. With out ATP molecues cannot be made or broken down, and cells cannot maintain there boundries. Structually ATP is a is a modified nucleotide.

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