med vocab ch 7.txt

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med vocab ch 7.txt
2013-09-24 20:04:50

PHRM 111
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  1. Cardiovascular system
    Heart and blood vessels carrying oxygen and nutrients to the body cells and carrying away waste
  2. Heart
    Muscular organ taking deoxygenated blood from the veins, pumping it to the lungs for oxygen, and returning it to the body through the arteries
  3. Apex
    The lower pointed end of the heart
  4. Septum
    Wall of heart tissue separating the R and L sides
  5. Atrium
    Upper receiving chamber of the heart; R and L
  6. Ventricle
    Lower pumping chamber of the heart; R and L structures
  7. Endocardium
    Inner lining of the heart
  8. Myocardium
    Middle muscular layer of heart tissue
  9. Epicardium
    Outer lining of the heart
  10. Pericardium
    Sac around the heart that facilitates movement of the heart as it beats
  11. Aortic valve
    Heart valve between the left ventricle and aorta
  12. Mitral valve
    Heart valve between the left atrium and left ventricle; also called a bicuspid valve
  13. Pulmonary valve
    Heart valve between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery; also called a semilunar valve due to the half-moon shape of its three cusps
  14. Tricuspid valve
    Heart valve between the right atrium and right ventricle; also called a semilunar valve due to the half-moon shape of its three cusps
  15. Blood vessels
    Structures that carry or transport blood
  16. Artery
    Vessel carrying blood away from the heart
  17. Arteriole
    Small artery
  18. Capillary
    Microscopic thin-walled vessel connecting arterioles and venules where gas, nutrient, and waste exchange take place between the blood and cell of the body
  19. Lumen
    Interior space of a vessel
  20. Venule
    Small vein
  21. Vein
    Vessel carrying blood to the heart
  22. Aorta
    Largest artery that begins as an arch from the left ventricle then branches and descends through the thoracic and abdominal cavities; carries oxygenated blood away from the heart
  23. Inferior vena cava
    Large vein carrying blood to the heart from the lower part of the body
  24. Superior vena cava
    Large vein carrying blood to the heart from the upper part of the body
  25. Lymph
    Clear fluid consisting of fluctuating amounts of white blood cells and a few red blood cells that accumulates in tissue and is removed by the lymphatic capillaries
  26. Lymph nodes
    • Lymph glands
    • Small bean-shaped masses of lymphatic tissue that filter bacteria and foreign material from the lymph; located on larger lymph vessels in the axillary, cervical, inguinal, and mediastinal areas
  27. Lymph vessels
    Vessels transporting lymph from body tissues to the venous system
  28. Lymph capillaries
    Microscopic thin-walled lymph vessels that pick up lymph, proteins, and waste from body tissues
  29. Lymph ducts
    The largest lymph vessels that transport lymph to the venous system
  30. Angi/o
    • vas/o
    • vascul/o
    • Vessel, duct
  31. Aort/o
  32. Arteri/o
  33. Ather/o
    Fatty paste
  34. Atri/o
  35. Card/o
  36. Coron/o
    Circle or crown
  37. Electr/o
    Electric, electricity
  38. My/o
  39. Phleb/o
    • ven/i
    • ven/o
    • Vein
  40. Pulmon/o
  41. Scler/o
  42. Son/o
    Sound, sound waves
  43. Sphygm/o
  44. Steth/o
    • Thorac/o
    • Thorax, chest
  45. Thromb/o
    Blood clot
  46. Valv/o
    • Vavlul/o
    • Valve
  47. Varic/o
    Swollen of twisted vein
  48. Ventricul/o
  49. Aden/o
  50. Lymph/o
  51. Brady-
  52. De-
    • Away from
    • cessation
    • without
  53. Endo-
    In, within
  54. Epi-
    On, following
  55. Inter-
  56. Intra-
  57. Peri-
    Around, surrounding
  58. Tachy-
    Rapid, fast
  59. Tel-
  60. Trans-
    Across, through
  61. Tri-
  62. -al
    • -ar
    • -ary
    • -ic
    • Pertaining
  63. -ectasia
    Dilation, stretching
  64. -gram
    Record, recording
  65. -graph
    Instrument for recording
  66. -graphy
    Process of recording
  67. -icle, -ole, -ule
  68. -lytic
    Pertaining to destruction, breakdown, separation
  69. -ium
    Tissue, structure
  70. -stenosis
    Stricture, narrowing
  71. -oid
  72. Arteriovenous (AV)
    Pertaining to both arteries and veins
  73. Atrioventricular (AV)
    Pertaining to the atria and ventricles
  74. Cardiovascular
    Pertaining to the heart and blood vessels
  75. Constriction
    Process of narrowing or tightening of a structure
  76. Cyanotic
    Pertaining to a blue or purple discoloration due to deoxygenated blood
  77. Deoxygenation
    Process of removing or having a lack of oxygen
  78. Diastole
    The relaxation phase of the ventricles in the heartbeat cycle
  79. Ischemic
    Pertaining to lack of blood flow
  80. Oxygenation
    Process of adding oxygen
  81. Paroxysmal
  82. Patent
    Open or exposed
  83. Precordial
    Pertaining to the anterior left chest
  84. Sphygmic
    Pertaining to the pulse
  85. Stenotic
    Pertaining to the condition of narrowing
  86. Supraventricular
    Pertaining to above the ventricles
  87. Systole
    The contraction phase of the ventricles in the heartbeat cycle
  88. Thoracic
    Pertaining to the chest
  89. Thrombotic
    Pertaining to a thrombus or blood clot
  90. Varicose
    Pertaining to swollen or twisted veins
  91. Acute coronary syndrome
    • ACS
    • Chest pain and other signs and symptoms associated with cardiac ischemia
  92. Aneurysm
    Dilation of an artery; usually due to a weakness in the wall of the artery
  93. Angina pectoris
    Chest pain or pressure resulting from lack of blood flow to the myocardium
  94. Angiostenosis
    Narrowing of blood vessel
  95. Aortic stenosis
    Narrowing of the aortic valve opening
  96. Arteriosclerosis
    • arteriosclerotic heart disease (ASHD)
    • Hardening or loss of elasticity of the arteries
  97. Atherosclerosis
    Buildup of plaque or fatty paste inside arterial walls
  98. Cadiac arrest
    Complete, sudden cessatin of cardiac activity
  99. Cardiac tamponade
    Compression of the heart due to an increase of fluid in the pericardium
  100. Cardiomegaly
    Enlargement of the heart
  101. Cardiomyopathy
    Disease of the heart muscles
  102. Cardiopathy
    Any disease of the heart (risk factors for heart disease can be changeable or non-changeable)
  103. Cardiovalvulitis
    Inflammation of the valves of the heart
  104. Coarctation of the arota
    Narrowing of the aorta causing hypertension, ventricular strain, and ischemia
  105. Congestive heart failure
    • CHF
    • Inefficiency of cardiac circulation causing edema and pulmonary congestion
  106. Coronary artery disease
    • CAD
    • Narrowing of coronary arteries causing a decrease of blood flow or ischemia to the myocardium
  107. Coronary occlusion
    Blockage of a coronary vessel often leading to a myocardial infarction
  108. Embolus
    Vascular blockage made up of a thrombus, bacteria, air, plaque, and/or other foreign material
  109. Endocarditis
    Inflammation of the endocardium
  110. Hypertension
    Persistently elevated blood pressure
  111. Hypotension
    Blood pressure that is below normal
  112. Intermittent claudication
    Cramping of the lower leg muscles usually caused by lack of blood flow
  113. Ischemia
    Lack of blood flow
  114. Mitral valve prolapse
    Backward movement of the mitral valve cusps allowing regurgitation
  115. Mitral valave stenosis
    Narrowing of the mitral valve opening usually caused by scarring from rheumatic fever
  116. Murmur
    Abnormal heart sound
  117. Myocardial infarction
    • MI
    • Death of heart tissue usually due to coronary artery occlusion
  118. Myocarditis
    Inflammation of the heart muscle
  119. Occlusion
    Blockage or closure
  120. Pericarditis
    Inflammation of the pericardial sac around the heart
  121. Peripheral arterial disease
    • PAD
    • Any disorder of the arteries outside of, or peripheral to, the heart
  122. Plaque
    Fat or lipid deposit on an arterial wall
  123. Polyarteritis
    Inflammation of many arteries
  124. Raynaud disease
    • Raynaud syndrome
    • Cyanosis of the fingers or tees due to vascular constriction, usually caused by cold temperatures or emotional stress
  125. Rheumatic heart disease
    • RHD
    • Valvular disease resulting from rheumatic fever
  126. Stenosis
    Narrowing or stricture of a vessel
  127. Thrombus
    Blood clot
  128. Arrhythmia
    Abnormality or disturbance of heart rhythm
  129. Bradycardia
    Slow heart rate
  130. Dysrhythmia
    Defective heart rhythm
  131. Fibrillation
    Rapid irregular muscular contractions of the atria or ventricles
  132. Palpitation
    Forceful or irregular heart beat felt by the patient
  133. Premature ventricular contraction
    • PVC
    • Early contraction of the ventricles
  134. Tachycardia
    Fast heart rate
  135. Deep venous thrombosis
    • DVT
    • Blood clot formation in a deep vein, usually of the legs or pelvic region
  136. Phlebitis
    Inflammation of a vein
  137. Telangiectasia
    Dilation of small or terminal vessels
  138. Thrombophlebitis
    Inflammation of a vein with formation of a clot
  139. Varicose vein
    Swollen and/or twisted veins, usually of the legs
  140. Edema
    Accumulation of excess fluid in intercellular spaces; can be caused by blockage or lymph vessels
  141. Elephantiasis
    Enlargement of the lower extremities due to blockage of lymph vessels commonly caused by filarial worms
  142. Filariae
    Small parasitic worms that are transmitted by mosquitoes; the worms invade tissues as embryos and block lymph vessels as they grow
  143. Lymphadenitis
    Inflammation of the lymph nodes
  144. Lymphadenopathy
    Disease of the lymph nodes; usually causes enlargement of the nodes
  145. Lymphangitis
    Inflammation of a lymph vessel
  146. Lympedema
    Edema due to a blocked lymph node or lymph vessel
  147. Pitting edema
    Edema that retains an indentation of a finger that had been pressed firmly on the skin
  148. Cardiac enzyme test
    Blood tests used to measure the level of creatine kinase (CK), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) that, when such levels are increased, may indicate a myocardial infarction
  149. Cardiac troponin
    Blood test used to measure the level of a protein that is released in the blood when myocardial cells die
  150. C-reactive protein
    • CRP
    • Blood test used to measure the level of inflammation in the body; may indicate conditions that lead to cardiovascular disease
  151. Electrolyte panel
    Blood test used to measure the level of Na, K, Cl, and CO2; used to diagnose an acid-base or pH imbalance that may cause arrhythmias, muscle damage, or death
  152. Lipid panel
    • Lipid profile
    • Blood test to measure the level of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), and triglycerides, all of which may signal an increased risk of cardiovascular disease
  153. Angioscopy
    Insertion of a catheter with an attached camera to visualize a structure or vessel
  154. Aortagraphy
    Process of recording the aorta after injection of a dye
  155. Arteriography
    Process of recording the artery after injection of a dye
  156. Coronary angiography
    • Cardiac catheterization
    • Process of recording the heart and major vessels after injection of a dye
  157. Magnetic resonance imaging
    • MRI
    • Imaging technique that uses magnetic fields and radio frequency waves to visualize anatomic structures
  158. Multiple uptake gated acquisition scan
    • MUGA scan
    • Nuclear medicine technique used to assess ventricular function by producing an image of a beating heart
  159. Sonography
    • Ultrasonography
    • Use of ultrasonic sound waves to visualize internal organs
  160. Doppler sonography
    • DS
    • Technique used to record velocity of blood flow
  161. Echocardiography
    Process of recoding the structure and function of the heart at rest and with exercise
  162. Transesophageal echocardiography
    • TEE
    • Placement of the ultrasonic transducer inside the patient's esophagus to assess cardiac function and examine cardiac structure
  163. Vascular sonography
    Placement of the ultrasound transducer at the trip of a catheter within a blood vessel to assess blood flow
  164. Single photon emission computed tomography scan
    • SPECT scan
    • Nuclear medicine technique use to assess ventricular function by producing a 3D image of a beating heart
  165. Venography
    Process of recording a vein after injection of a dye
  166. Ventriculography
    Process of recording the heart ventricles after injection of a dye or radioactive substance (radionuclide)
  167. Auscultation
    Listening to body sounds with a stethoscope
  168. Blood pressure monitoring
    • BP
    • Auscultation of the systolic and diastolic arterial pressure using a stethoscope and a sphygmomanometer
  169. Electrocardiography
    • ECG
    • EKC
    • Process of recording (in a graphic format) the heart's electrical activity; the waves are labeled with the letters P, Q, R, S, and T
  170. Graded exercise test (GXT)
    • Stress electrocardiogram
    • exercise stress test
    • Electrocardiogram performed with controlled stress, usually with a treadmill or bicycle
  171. Holter meter (HM)
    Portable electrocardiographic device usually worn for 24 hours
  172. Percussion
    Physical examination method of tapping over the body to elicit vibrations and sounds to estimate the size, border, or fluid content of a cavity
  173. Pulse
    Rhythmic dilation of an artery with each heart contraction, usually felt at the wrist or neck
  174. Sphygmomanometer
    Device used for measuring blood pressure
  175. Stethoscope
    Instrument used for auscultation of vascular or other sounds in the body
  176. Lymphangiography
    Process of recording a lymph node or lymph vessel after injection of a dye
  177. Angioplasty
    Surgical repair of a vessel
  178. Aortocoronary bypass
    • ACB
    • Attachment of a grafted vessel to the aorta to go around a damaged coronary artery
  179. Aneurysmectomy
    Excision of an aneurysm
  180. Atherectomy
    Surgical removal of fatty plaque from a vessel surgically or using catheterization
  181. Cardiac pacemaker
    Surgically placed mechanical device connected to stimulating leads (electrodes) on or within the heart, programmed to help maintain normal heart rate and rhythm
  182. Cardioversion
    Use of defibrillation or drugs to restore the heart's normal rhythm
  183. Coronary artery bypass graft
    • CABG
    • Surgical procedure in which a damaged section of a coronary artery is replaced or bypassed with a graft vessel
  184. Defibrillation
    Use of an electric shock to stop fibrillation or cardiac arrest
  185. Embolectomy
    Surgical removal of an embolus or blood clot, usually with a catheter
  186. Endarterectomy
    Surgical removal of atheromatous deposits, usually in a coronary or carotid artery
  187. Pericardiocentesis
    Surgical puncture to aspirate fluid from the pericardium
  188. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
    • PTCA
    • Advancement of a cardiac catheter with a balloon attachment that can be inflated at the site of stenosis, thereby enlarging the lumen
  189. Phlebectomy
    Excision of a vein
  190. Stent
    Intravascular insertion of a hollow mesh tube designed to keep a vessel open or patent
  191. Valve replacement
    Surgical replacement of a valve with a biologic or mechanical device
  192. Valvotomy
    Incision into a valve
  193. Valvuloplasty
    Surgical repair of a valve
  194. Adenectomy
    Excision of a gland
  195. Lympadenectomy
    Excision of a lymph node
  196. Lymphadenotomy
    Incision into a lymph node
  197. Anticoagulant
    Drug used to prolong clotting time
  198. Antiarrhythmic agent
    Drug used to suppress fast or irregular heart rhythms
  199. Hemostatic agent
    Drug that stops the flow of blood within vessels
  200. Hypolipidemic agent
    Drug used to lower cholesterol levels
  201. Nitroglycerin
    Vasodilator used for angina pectoris
  202. Thrombolytic therapy
    Administration of an IV drug to dissolve a blood clot
  203. Vasoconstrictor
    Drug that decreases the size of blood vessels
  204. Vasodilator
    Drug that increases the size of blood vessels
  205. Cardiology
    Medical specialty concerned with diagnosis and treatment of heart disease
  206. Cardiologist
    Physician who specializes in cardiology
  207. Cardiac electrophysiology
    Medical specialty concerned with the electrical activities of the heart
  208. Cardiac electrophysiologist
    Physician who specializes in cardiac electrophysiology
  209. Lymphedema therapy
    Medical specialty concerned with the treatment of lymphedema
  210. Lymphedema therapist
    One who specializes in lymphedema therapy
  211. ACB
    Aortacoronary bypass
  212. ACS
    Acute coronary syndrome
  213. ASHD
    Arteriosclerotic heart disease
  214. AV
    • Arteriovenous
    • Arterioventricular
  215. BP
    Blood pressure
  216. CABG
    Coronary artery bypass graft
  217. CAD
    Coronary artery disease
  218. CHF
    Congestive heart failure
  219. DS
    Doppler sonography
  220. DVT
    Deep venous thrombosis
  221. ECG
    • EKG
    • Electrocardiography
  222. GXT
    Graded exercise test
  223. HM
    Holter monitor
  224. HTN
  225. MI
    Myocardial infarction
  226. MRA
    Magnetic resonance angiography
  227. MRI
    Magnetic resonance imaging
  228. MUGA
    Multiple uptake gated acquisition
  229. PAD
    Peripheral arterial disease
  230. PTCA
    Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
  231. PVC
    Premature ventricular contraction
  232. RHD
    Rheumatic heart disease
  233. SPECT
    Single photon emission computed tomography
  234. TEE
    Transesophageal echocardiography