A&P Joints & Horse Pathologies

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A&P Joints & Horse Pathologies
2013-09-24 20:44:34
Vet Tech

Joint Test and Horse Pathologies
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  1. The term arthro- and articular refer to what?
  2. Study of Joints
  3. 3 types of joints
    • 1. Immovable Fibrous Joints
    • 2. Slightly movable catilaginous joints
    • 3. Freely movable Synovial Joints
  4. Anatomical term for fibrous joint?
  5. are immovable in that the bones are firmly united by fibrous tissue.
    Fibrous Joints
  6. 2 examples of Fibrous joints
    Sutures and the fibrous union of the splint bones of horses with the large metacarpal and metatarsal bones
  7. Anatomical term for Cartilaginous joints
  8. slightly movable; capable of only a slight rocking movement.
    Cartilaginous joints
  9. 3 examples of Cartilaginous joints
    • 1. intervertebral disks between the bodies of adjacent vertebrae in the spine
    • 2. symphysis between the two halves of the pelvis
    • 3 symphysis between the two sides of the mandible in some animals
  10. Anatomical name for Synovial joints?
  11. Freely movable joints
    Synovial joints
  12. 4 examples of synovial joints
    • 1. Femur and acetabulum
    • 2. humerus and scapula
    • 3. ulna/radius and humerus
    • 4. tibia/fibula and femur
  13. 4 characteristics of synovial joints
    • 1. Articular surfaces on the bones
    • 2. Articular cartilage covering the surface
    • 3. Fluid filled joint cavity in joint capsule
    • 4. Ligaments may be present to stabilize
  14. aka the joint space, clinically is a fluid-filled potential space between the joint surface
    the joint cavity
  15. What surrounds the joint cavity?
    A multilayered joint capsule
  16. the outer layer of capsule
    Fibrous tissue
  17. Lining layer of capsule
    Synovial membrane
  18. The round condyles of the femur sit on top of the flattish condyles of the tibia, supported only by two shallow, concave, half moon-shaped cartilage structures called what?
    medial and lateral meniscus
  19. provides support on the front of the joint.
    The patella tendon aka the patellar ligament
  20. On the medial and lateral sides of the joint, two strap-like ______ ____ connect the femur and the tibia.
    Collateral ligaments
  21. Inside the joint are two ligaments that cross each other in an "X" shape. They help prevent the bones of the stifle from sliding back and forth as the joint bends and straightens. What are they called?
    Anterior and Posterior cruciate ligaments.
  22. Condition where tibia is pulled out from femur.
    Anterior Drawer Sign
  23. ____ and ____ are antagonistic. ____ decreases the angle between two bones and ____ increases the angle between two bones.
    Flexion and Extension; Flexion decreases angle; Extension increases angle
  24. ____ and ____ are antagonistic. _____ is movement of an extremity toward the median plane and _____ is a movement away from the median plane.
    Adduction and Abduction; Adduction is a movement toward. Abduction is a movement away.
  25. a twisting movement of a part on its own axis
  26. is the movement of an extremity so that the distal end moves in a circle.
  27. 4 types of Synovial joints.
    • 1. Hinge joints
    • 2. Gliding Joints
    • 3. Pivot joints
    • 4. Ball and socket joints
  28. What is another name for Hinge joints?
    Ginglymus joints
  29. One joint surface swivels around another. the only movements possible are flexion and extension.
    Hinge joint
  30. "rocking joints". main movement possible are flexion and extension, but some abduction and adduction may also be possible.
    Gliding Joints
  31. 2 examples of gliding joints.
    TMJ and carpus
  32. Another name for pivot joint?
    trochoid joints
  33. One bone pivots on another. the only movement possible is rotation
    Pivot joint
  34. Another name for Ball and Socket joint?
    spheroidal joint
  35. allow the most extensive movement of all the joint types.
    Ball and socket joint
  36. 2 examples of Ball and socket joints.
    • 1. shoulder joint
    • 2. hip joint
  37. distension of joint capsule of hock; swelling on the craniomedial aspect of hock
    Bog Spavin
  38. Degenerative Joint disease of distal intertarsal and tarsometatarsal joints
    Bone spavin (jack spavin)
  39. Inflammation of any bursa
  40. Inflammation of bursa over olecranon process
    capped elbow
  41. Inflammation of bursa over calcaneus
    Capped hock
  42. Inflammation of carpal joint capsule and/or ligaments
    Carpitis (popped knee)
  43. Components of joint displaced
    • Dislocation (joints dont go back in)
    • (luxation)-joints displace and go back in
  44. Subluxation of Sacroiliac joint
    Hunters Bump
  45. Inflammation of laminae between hoof wall and distal phalanx
    Laminitis (founder)
  46. Inflammation of navicular bursa and bone, often with involvement of associated tendons.
    Navicular disease
  47. Periostitis of proximal phalanx and/or metacarpus III, with capulitis of fetlock joint
  48. Inflammation or infection of bursa over atlas
    Poll Evil
  49. Infection of collateral cartilages of distal phalanx
  50. Osteophyte formation of interphalangeal joints
    Ring bone
  51. Ossification of collateral cartilage of distal phalanx
    Side bone
  52. Inflammation and exostosis involving joint between cannon bone and a splint bone (usually medial)
  53. Stretching of ligaments of any joint
  54. Stretching of tendons
  55. Upward fixation of the patella..................locking of patella over medial ridge or femoral trochlea holds patella and hock in extension
  56. Synovitis of fetlock joint or tendonosynovitis of digital flexor tendons in region of fetlock
    Wind puffs (wind gall)