A&P Joints & Horse Pathologies
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The term arthro- and articular refer to what?
Study of Joints
3 types of joints
- 1. Immovable Fibrous Joints
- 2. Slightly movable catilaginous joints
- 3. Freely movable Synovial Joints
Anatomical term for fibrous joint?
are immovable in that the bones are firmly united by fibrous tissue.
2 examples of Fibrous joints
Sutures and the fibrous union of the splint bones of horses with the large metacarpal and metatarsal bones
Anatomical term for Cartilaginous joints
slightly movable; capable of only a slight rocking movement.
3 examples of Cartilaginous joints
- 1. intervertebral disks between the bodies of adjacent vertebrae in the spine
- 2. symphysis between the two halves of the pelvis
- 3 symphysis between the two sides of the mandible in some animals
Anatomical name for Synovial joints?
Freely movable joints
4 examples of synovial joints
- 1. Femur and acetabulum
- 2. humerus and scapula
- 3. ulna/radius and humerus
- 4. tibia/fibula and femur
4 characteristics of synovial joints
- 1. Articular surfaces on the bones
- 2. Articular cartilage covering the surface
- 3. Fluid filled joint cavity in joint capsule
- 4. Ligaments may be present to stabilize
aka the joint space, clinically is a fluid-filled potential space between the joint surface
the joint cavity
What surrounds the joint cavity?
A multilayered joint capsule
the outer layer of capsule
Lining layer of capsule
The round condyles of the femur sit on top of the flattish condyles of the tibia, supported only by two shallow, concave, half moon-shaped cartilage structures called what?
medial and lateral meniscus
provides support on the front of the joint.
The patella tendon aka the patellar ligament
On the medial and lateral sides of the joint, two strap-like ______ ____ connect the femur and the tibia.
Inside the joint are two ligaments that cross each other in an "X" shape. They help prevent the bones of the stifle from sliding back and forth as the joint bends and straightens. What are they called?
Anterior and Posterior cruciate ligaments.
Condition where tibia is pulled out from femur.
Anterior Drawer Sign
____ and ____ are antagonistic. ____ decreases the angle between two bones and ____ increases the angle between two bones.
Flexion and Extension; Flexion decreases angle; Extension increases angle
____ and ____ are antagonistic. _____ is movement of an extremity toward the median plane and _____ is a movement away from the median plane.
Adduction and Abduction; Adduction is a movement toward. Abduction is a movement away.
a twisting movement of a part on its own axis
is the movement of an extremity so that the distal end moves in a circle.
4 types of Synovial joints.
- 1. Hinge joints
- 2. Gliding Joints
- 3. Pivot joints
- 4. Ball and socket joints
What is another name for Hinge joints?
One joint surface swivels around another. the only movements possible are flexion and extension.
"rocking joints". main movement possible are flexion and extension, but some abduction and adduction may also be possible.
2 examples of gliding joints.
TMJ and carpus
Another name for pivot joint?
One bone pivots on another. the only movement possible is rotation
Another name for Ball and Socket joint?
allow the most extensive movement of all the joint types.
Ball and socket joint
2 examples of Ball and socket joints.
- 1. shoulder joint
- 2. hip joint
distension of joint capsule of hock; swelling on the craniomedial aspect of hock
Degenerative Joint disease of distal intertarsal and tarsometatarsal joints
Bone spavin (jack spavin)
Inflammation of any bursa
Inflammation of bursa over olecranon process
Inflammation of bursa over calcaneus
Inflammation of carpal joint capsule and/or ligaments
Carpitis (popped knee)
Components of joint displaced
- Dislocation (joints dont go back in)
- (luxation)-joints displace and go back in
Subluxation of Sacroiliac joint
Inflammation of laminae between hoof wall and distal phalanx
Inflammation of navicular bursa and bone, often with involvement of associated tendons.
Periostitis of proximal phalanx and/or metacarpus III, with capulitis of fetlock joint
Inflammation or infection of bursa over atlas
Infection of collateral cartilages of distal phalanx
Osteophyte formation of interphalangeal joints
Ossification of collateral cartilage of distal phalanx
Inflammation and exostosis involving joint between cannon bone and a splint bone (usually medial)
Stretching of ligaments of any joint
Stretching of tendons
Upward fixation of the patella..................locking of patella over medial ridge or femoral trochlea holds patella and hock in extension
Synovitis of fetlock joint or tendonosynovitis of digital flexor tendons in region of fetlock
Wind puffs (wind gall)
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