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In the case of Griggs v duke power, what did the supreme court rule abou the IQ tst?
the iq test was not valid for the purpose of classifying workers
Not only must there be evidence tha a test has a menaning in general but there must be..
evidence that it has validity for the particular stiauaion to which it is being applied
Psychologists alwasy begin with the assumption that there is no ________ to believe that a measure is valid
Where does the evidence for validity comes from?
the association between the results of a test and other variables
it can be defined as the agreement between a test score or measure and the quality it is belived to measure
what are 3 primary types of evidence?
aspects of validity- what is face validity?
the test appears to measure what it says its measuring
Is face validity really validity?
What can face validity do?
it can help motivate test takers bc thet can see that the items are relevant to the skill or quality that is thought to be measured
What type of testing is the content-related evidence especially important for?
content-related criterion- What should the questions on the exam measure?
the content of the material we covered in class
content-related criterion- Is content-related evidence logical or statistical?
content-related criterion- what is contruct underrepresentation?
not all important aspects f the contruct are sampled
ex) SAT only had algebra and not geometry
content-related criterion- what is contruct-irrelevant variance?
scores are influenced by factors irrelevant to the contruct
ex) anxiety or reading problems
what does criterion-related evidence for validity tells us?
how well a test corresponds with a particular criterion
*correlation between a test and a well defined criterion measure
criterion validity- What is a predictive validity?
using a test to forecast something
*SAT is the predictor variable and college GPA is criterion
criterion validity- WHat is concurrent validity?
when one measure is used to estimate another event taking place at the same time
*simultaneous relationship between the test and the criterion
What is the strong interest inventory?
compares peoples interests with those of individuals who are in a variaety of occupations and are happy in them
What is a validity coefficient?
is a correlation expressing a relationship between a test and a criterion
In practice validity coefficicents are rarely higher than...
What is considered high for a validity coefficient?
.3 to .4
Which coefficient needs to be higher reliability or validity?
When is a low validity coefficient useful?
when there are no other reliable predictors available
Hamilton and Beck- What is the hamilton?
- is a rating of a patient by a professional
- *nurse or doctor
Hamilton and Beck- What is Beck?
is a self reporting scale of depression
Which of the 2 SAT tests was well associated with college grades?
evaluating validity coefficients- Look for changes in the cause of relationships
the logic of criterion validation presumes that the conditions in effect when the test was validated will still be in effect when the new results are applied
evaluating validity coefficients- What does the criterion mean?
the criterion itself must be reliable and valid
evaluating validity coefficients- Review the subject population in the validity study
the population on which the test was validated may not be the same as the population on which it will be used on.
ex)if the test was developed on white people, it may not be the same for hispanics
evaluating validity coefficients- Be sure the sample size was adequate
if a validity coefficient was based on a very small sample the results can be quite misleading
evaluating validity coefficients- Never confuse the criterion with the predictor
ex) a student was admitted even though he did not meet the standard GRE score. He was not allowed to graduate till he met the standard GRE score
evaluating validity coefficients- Check for restricted range on both the criterion and the predictor
ex) the person doesnt get in to ivy league law school unless your scores are really high. this creates a restricted range
evaluating validity coefficients- review evidence for validity generalization
ex) can findings obtained in one situation actually be generalized to other situations?
evaluating validity coefficients- Consider differential prediction
predictive relationships may not be the same for all groups
ex)when a test is used to measure indifcudals who do are not native englsih speakers, the validity of the test may be much different
criterion validity- the criterion itself must be..
the most accurate measure of the phenomenon being observed
What is construct validity evidence?
a researcher simultaneously defines some construct and then develops instrumentation to measure it
What were the 3 factors Rubin found about love?
construct validity evidence- Convergent evidence for validity
when a measure correlates well with other things thought to be measures of a certain construct
ex) if we developed a health index then people who score low on it shold have more physical symptoms than those taht score high on it
construct validity evidence-what is discriminant evidnce?
your test should not correlate with measures of unrelated constructs
ex) if your measure correlates too highly with other measures of your construct, why doe it have any purpose at all? why not just use one?
difference between criterion and population referenced tests- what is a criterion referenced test?
is a test that wants to predict to a particular criterion.
Ex) achieving a higher score than 600 on GRE, predicting if a student with a certian score will do better than 75 percent of classmates
difference between criterion and population referenced tests- What is a poplation (norm) referenced tests?
is a test where you look at where this score falls in the population being measured
relationship between reliability and validity- if the reliability of a criterion is low, then the validity will be
relationship between reliability and validity- validity are not expected to be ..
very high bc so many other factors can affect a variable between the test and the actual event
All validity is ultimately...
Is it possible to demonstrate that an unrelaible test is valid?
no, its impossible
relationship between reliability and validity- A test should not correlate more hihgly with any other variable than
it correlates with itself
what is the maximum validity coefficient between 2 variables equal to?
- square root of the product of the reliability of the test and the reliability of the criterion
- ex) IQ scores and school grades
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